Archive for the ‘Preterism Refuted’ Category

Not a single Bible verse indisputably placing Body of Christ on earth during Israel’s Tribulation

Dr. Mike Johnston

There isn’t a verse anywhere in the Bible clearly and indisputably placing the church Body of Christ on earth for a single moment during Israel’s coming Tribulation without pulling from context and redefining the words “saints”, “elect”, and “disciples” which in Daniel, the Olivet Discourse, and Revelation refer to Israel. The evidence for this leaps from the pages of the King James Bible rightly divided (2 Tim. 2:15).

Revelation for Israel, Rapture for the Church Body

Dr. Mike Johnston


Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him.  (4)  He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the Earth, that he may judge his people.  (5)  Gather my saints together unto me [see Matt. 24:31 [1]] ; those that have made a covenant [Abrahamic] with me by sacrifice.

(6) And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge himself. Selah”

(Psalms 50:3-6).

A contrarian clique represented in the current rapture debate suffers from the same passing blindness Israel surrendered to 2000 years ago (Rom. 11:25). In that state, they refuse to accept right division between Israel and the church Body and the subsequent distinctions. For instance, why is it such an insurmountable task for our opponents to understand the Rapture as a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51-52) when in fact the entire church Body is a mystery (Rom. 16:25) having no connection to the Revelation outlined progressively by the prophets to Israel? Those who insist on placing the church Body in the middle of it sound eerily familiar to a group Paul addressed:

“But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile” (Romans 2:8-9).

Understanding right division God placed in Scripture is a prerequisite to arriving at right conclusions and clears up the Rapture confusion completely. Let’s be clear. We are not afraid of Biblical truth verified via Scripture; something every student has access to yet numbers are unwilling to avail themselves. I’ll explain the untoward upshot of this in the last chapter.

As we’ve seen, Israel’s Tribulation throughout the Bible is part of God’s prophecy program for Israel and Earth (Isa. 2; Jer. 30-31; Joel; Zeph; Rev. 3:10; 6-19). It precedes the Messianic Kingdom prophesied throughout the OT. [2] This time of trouble (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph. 1:15) is Israel’s Tribulation which originated in the prophecy program is Covenant related. It was initially revealed by Moses in a prophecy specifically for Israel in the latter days, (Deut. 4:30-31).

This is a simple three-point synopsis of Israel’s Tribulation:

  • It is punishment [3] of Israel’s enemies as well as Israel (Deut. 30:7; 32:43; Isa. 2:19-21; Isa. 13; 24; 34; 30-31; Dan. 7; 12:1; Joel 2; Zephaniah, see 1:15; Matt. 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev. 6-19);
  • It is positioning Israel back under Abrahamic Covenant(Gen. 15-17; Deut. 4:30-31),
  • It is preparing Israel – and in a collateral sense, the Earth – (Jer. 30-31; Ezek. 20:37; 22:18-22; Zeph. 1:14-18) – for the Revelation of the Messiah and the Jewish (Millennial) Kingdom promised in perpetuity through the Davidic Covenant(2 Sam. 7:8-16).

Please take careful note. Every Bible reference to Israel’s Tribulation speaks of at least one of these three important things while NEVER mentioning the Body of Christ which was a mystery completely hidden from the prophets (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:2-9; Col. 1:26).

We can easily identify Israel’s Tribulation as a major change component prophesied to her for the latter days. In his monolithic treatise on Systematic Theology, Dr. Lewis Chafer described Israel’s Tribulation as “one of the major highways of prophecy, which may be traced through Scripture as follows: Deu_4:29-30; Jer_30:4-7; Dan_12:1; Mat_24:9-26; 2Th_2:1-12; Rev_3:10; 6:1-19:6. See also Psa_2:5; Isa_2:10-22; Isa_13:9-16; Isa_24:21-23; Isa_26:20-21; Isa_34:1-17; Isa_43:1-6; Isa_49:15-24; Jer_25:29-38; Eze_30:3; Amo_5:18-20; Oba_1:15-21; Zep_1:7-18; Zec_12:1-14; Zec_14:1-4; Mal_4:1-4.

(The Tribulation) is the period known as Daniel’s seventieth week (Dan_9:24-27), the order of events being the same in Daniel as in Matthew 24 and in 2 Thessalonians 2. The final week or heptad is seven years in duration, which is proved by the fact that it was exactly 69×7 years between the order to rebuild Jerusalem and the cutting off of Messiah. This remaining seventieth “week” of years belongs to Israel’s age and will be characterized by the same general conditions as obtained in the past Jewish age. The time is to be shortened a little (Mat_24:22). It is known as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer_30:4-7) out of which Israel will be saved. The great tribulation is the time of God’s unavoidable judgments on a Christ-rejecting world (Psa_2:5). It is characterized by:

  1. The removal of the Holy Spirit together with the Church from the Earth (2Th_2:7).
  2. The casting of Satan into, thus restricting him to, the Earth (Rev_12:9-12).
  3. The development of sin which was hitherto restrained (2Th_2:11).
  4. The rule of the man of sin (Joh_5:43).
  5. Termination by the second coming of Christ, the battle of Armageddon, and the smiting stone of Daniel 2.”

Revelation and Rapture Distinctions

A wrong division of the Bible will not tolerate making a distinction between the Lord’s return to Israel with the church Body, or His return for us preceding Israel’s Tribulation – an event prophesied for Israel in the latter days (Deut. 4:30-31). From the beginning when Moses first announced it, there has never been any mention of or allusion to the Body of Christ because we didn’t exist except as a mystery in the complexities of God’s heavenly program. Bear in mind, the God who created us as a provisional mystery during this prophecy interim, had already planned our mystery escape before the prophecy clock would resume for Israel. It is known as the Rapture and as we’ll see, it is as distinct from the Revelation as the Body of Christ is from the nation Israel.

Study Scripture. The Revelation was a well-attested future hope of Israel with a progressive prophetic basis for understanding. The Rapture, however, is a mystery [4] NOT known by the prophets and only revealed to the Body of Christ by Paul.

The Revelation of Christ involves His return to Israel and Earth. The Rapture by Christ involves Jesus taking the Body of Christ to heaven. Currently Israel awaits the final seven years of Daniel’s prophecy followed by the Kingdom (Dan. 7), the Body of Christ looks for Christ our Deliverer who promised to take us to Heaven (John 14:2-3; see 1 Thess. 4:13-18; Rev. 3:10;). The removal of the church Body via the Rapture will occur once “the fulness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25), allowing the prophecy clock to resume at Daniel’s 70th week where Israel’s Tribulation and the final preparations for the Kingdom can once again get underway following the Revelation of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem. “But I have chosen Jerusalem, that my name might be there; and have chosen David to be over my people Israel” (2 Chronicles 6:6).

Now let’s ask ourselves a question: Why is this even disputed?

In a sentence, conflation lends confusion, which leads to contention. Paul’s warning is direct, “But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile” (Romans 2:8-9).

The Revelation is Prophecy for Israel

What we are witnessing today is a mixing together of the prophecy program for Israel with the mystery program for the church Body and posturing against the differences. I’m reluctant to admit (from sheer embarrassment) the vast numbers of Bible teachers who are not only acrimonious adversaries of the mystery (study carefully the destructive outcome of this- 2 Pet. 3:15-17) [5], they are stubbornly combative in their opposition to it, even though Scripture is very clear about the two distinct program outcomes of prophecy and mystery. Prophecy is for Israel progressively revealed by the mouth of God’s holy prophets since the world began (Acts. 3:21). The Revelation – known by Christians as the Second Coming – is part of Israel’s established prophecy program. Dr. Rice writes: “There is more said in the Bible about the second coming than there is about the first coming. The restoration of Israel, the putting down of evil, the establishment of a reign of righteousness, the end of war, the end of disease-all these wait on the return of Christ. The events of prophecy cluster around, precede, or follow the return of the Saviour.” (The Second Coming of Christ in Daniel, 1935). It concerns Israel’s future Kingdom in the “ages to come” and her King, the Messiah (Psa. 102:16; Isa. 66:15-18; Dan. 7:13-14; Zech. 14:3-4; etc).

Messiah’s coming to Earth of course originated with God’s servants the prophets and centers around the establishment of the Davidic Covenant Kingdom in Jerusalem. Progressive revelation teaches us it will occur at the completion of Israel’s Tribulation (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 24:29) also known as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7), Daniel’s seventieth week (Daniel 9:24-27, “the day of the Lord” (Isaiah 2:12; 13:6,9; 34:8; Jeremiah 46:10, etc), a “time of trouble” (Dan. 12:1), and “the hour of temptation” (Rev. 3:10). This Revelation of the Messiah to Israel was well known; the Rapture of the Body of Christ – a mystery hidden from the prophets – was NOT.

The Distinction and Description of Messiah’s Revelation to Israel:

The Revelation of the Messiah is a monumental event witnessed and experienced by the world (Rev. 1:7). Study carefully the Revelation verses below in their relation to Rapture verses because the prophets NEVER described the Revelation in the fashion Paul described the Rapture. In an article entitled The Glorious Appearing of Christ, Dr. J. Dwight Pentecost wrote: “When the Son returns in glory (Rev. 1:13-16 He is fulfilling His God given role as Judge (John 5:27). He is portrayed in that role throughout the book of Revelation. Christ is the one (Rev. 5:5) who looses the series of judgments described in the breaking of the seals (Rev. 6:1-17) and the blowing of the trumpets (Rev. 8:2-9:21) . . .  Upon the Second Coming, He will assemble living Israel for judgment (Matt. 24:31; 25:1-30) and will judge living Gentiles to determine who will enter the covenanted kingdom.”

Here are some of the prophetic Revelation verses describing this event

1 Chronicles 16:33 “Then shall the trees of the wood sing out at the presence of the LORD, because he cometh to judge the Earth.”

Job 19:25-26 “For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the Earth:  (26)  And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God:”

Psalms 50:3-6 “Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him.  (4)  He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the Earth, that he may judge his people.  (5)  Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice.  (6)  And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge himself. Selah.”

Psalms 96:13 “Before the LORD: for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the Earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth.”

Psalms 102:16 “When the LORD shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory.”

Isaiah 26:21 “For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the Earth for their iniquity: the Earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.”

Isaiah 66:15-18 “For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.  (16)  For by fire and by his sword will the LORD plead with all flesh: and the slain of the LORD shall be many.  (17)  They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one tree in the midst, eating swine’s flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the LORD.  (18)  For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory.”

Daniel 7:13-14 “I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.  (14)  And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.”

Zechariah 14:4-5, 9 “And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.  (5)  And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the Earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee.  (9)  And the LORD shall be king over all the Earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.”

Matthew 24:29-31 “Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:  (30)  And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the Earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.  (31)  And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.”

1 Thessalonians 2:19 “For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? Are not even ye in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming?”

Jude 1:14-15 “And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,  (15)  To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”

Revelation 1:7  “Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the Earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.”

Revelation 19:11-15 “And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.  (12)  His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.  (13)  And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.  (14)  And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.  (15)  And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.”

The Rapture is a Mystery for the Body of Christ

The church Body is a mystery that was unknown to the prophets (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:1-9). Since they didn’t know about us, never mentioned us, and there isn’t a verse anywhere in Scripture indisputably identifying us here, how could we possibly be included in Israel’s Tribulation with God’s elect Israel (Isa. 45:4) and the unsaved nations of the world?

Answer: We aren’t! God shrouded the Body of Christ in mystery (Rom. 16:25). The Rapture is a mystery event experienced by the mystery church Body alone.

The distinct Rapture description – including its imminency – from Paul

I had to laugh some time ago when I was involved in a very heated “discussion” with a delusional anti-PreTrib man who charged me with being a “stinking liberal” for believing in the PreTrib rapture. Excuse me, while believing in the imminent rapture doesn’t itself make a person conservative, I’ve never found in 40 years one liberal that is PreTrib.

Let’s look at some verses discussing the Rapture of the church Body of Christ

1 Corinthians 15:51-52 “Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,  (52)  In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.”

1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 “For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.”

Galatians 1:4 “Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver (pluck out, rescue- Strongs) us from (ek) [6] this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:”

Philippians 3:20-21 “For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ:  (21)  Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.”

Philippians 4:5 “Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand.”

1 Thessalonians 1:10 “And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come.”

1 Thessalonians 4:13-18  (13) “But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.  (14)  For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.  (15)  For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.  (16)  For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:  (17)  Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.  (18)  Wherefore comfort one another with these words.”

1 Thessalonians 5:9 “For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ”

1 Thessalonians 5:23 “And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

2 Thessalonians 2:1-2 “Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him,  (2)  That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand.”

2 Thessalonians 3:5 “And the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God, and into the patient waiting for Christ.”

1 Timothy 6:14  That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ:

2 Timothy 2:18 “Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.”

2 Timothy 4:1 “I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing (Rapture) and his kingdom (Revelation)”

2 Timothy 4:8 “Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing”.

QUICK COMMENT: Second Timothy 4:8 is a very compelling proof that the church Body will be removed BEFORE Israel’s Tribulation because it promises a “crown of righteousness” (2 Tim. 4:8) for all who “love His appearing”. Now think about this! Who in their right mind wouldn’t love and long for His appearing if they had to endure the persecution, plundering, pillaging and possible torture and martyrdom facing Earth dwellers during Israel’s Tribulation bloodbath? This fact alone would render this crown worthless! Titus 2:13 “Looking for that blessed hope, [7] and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” 

Chart: Rapture and the Revelation


Unrevealed and not predicted in O.T. Scriptures (1 Cor. 15:51 – “mystery” compare Eph. 3:9 – “which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God”)
Christ comes in the air (1 Thess. 4:16-17)
Christ comes for His saints (1 Thess. 4:16-17; 1 Cor. 15:51-56) and returns to Heaven (John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 4:14).
Christ claims His bride (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27)

Only His own people see Him (1 Thess. 4:17-18; Phil. 3:20; Titus 2:13)


A wedding ceremony will occur following this coming (Rev. 19:7; 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27)


Christ coming as the bright and morning star (Rev. 22:16)
Translation of living believers to Heaven (1 Cor. 15:51-52; John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18)

A time of blessing and comfort (1 Thess. 4:18; 5:11)
Earth not judged (John 14:3; 1 Cor. 15:51-53; 2 Thess. 2:1 – no mention of judgment)


Imminent (any moment), signless – (Phil. 3:20; 4:5; Titus 2:13; 1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 3:11; 22:12. 20)


Believers only are involved with this coming (John 14:1-3; 1 Cor.15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:13-18)
Occurs before God’s wrath  (1 Thess. 1:10; 5:4, 9; Rev. 3:10 – “keep thee from the hour”)
Marks the commencement of God’s day of wrath on Earth (1 Thess. 5:1-9).
Tribulation begins following this coming (1 Thess. 1:10; 2 Thess. 2:1-3; Rev. 3:10; Rev. 6-19)

No mention of Satan (1 Thess. 4:13-18)


Revealed and predicted often in O.T. Scriptures (Isa. 9:7; 11:4; 26:19-21; 63:1-4; Dan. 2:44-45; 7:9-12; Zech. 14:1-9; Ma. 4:2-3)

Christ comes back to Earth (Zech. 14:4)
Christ comes with His saints (Zech. 14:5; 1 Thess. 3:13; Jude 14) and returns to Earth (Rev. 19:11-14).
Christ comes with His bride (Rev. 19:7-9; 11-14)

Every eye shall see Him – visible to entire world (Matt. 24:27; Rev. 1:7)


A wedding feast will occur following this coming (Rev. 19:9; Matt. 22:1-14; Lk. 14:12-24; Isa 25:6)



Christ comes as the sun of righteousness (Malachi 4:2)
Transfer of unbelievers to judgment (Matt. 24:37-41; 25:31-46; 13:41-42; 3:11-12)

A time of Earthly destruction and judgment (2 Thess. 2:8-12; Matt. 24:51; 25:46)
Earth judged (Rev. 16:14-20; 19:15; Isa. 11:4)


Follows definite predicted signs (signs occurring during Israel’s Tribulation Period – Matt. 24:29-34)
All humanity is affected by this coming (Matt. 24:1-25:46 – Israel and Gentile nations)


Occurs “after the Tribulation of those days” (Matt. 24:29-30) – 7 years later
Marks the culmination of God’s day of wrath on Earth (Joel 2:31; Rev. 19:15)

Millennium begins following this coming (Rev. 20:1-3; Matt. 13:41-43; Daniel 7:13-14; 12:2-3)

Satan is bound (Rev. 20:1-3)


Paul’s Mystery

When Paul introduced the mystery rapture, he did so as a well-educated duly connected ex-member of the powerful, prestigious Jewish Sanhedrin and graduate of the tutelage of Gamaliel (Acts 22:3). This is where he received an extensive study of the prophets and OT Law including the hope of a future resurrection (Psalm 2:5-9; Isa. 2:1-4; 26:19-21; Dan. 12:2; see his commentary in 1 Cor. 15). This hope – aside from the liberal Sadducees (Matt. 22:23) and their followers – continued to dominate religious thinking on through the time of Christ (John 11:24).

With unassailable educational credentials, Paul unveiled the Rapture resurrection of the church as a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51-53; see 1 Thess. 4:13-18), to the mystery people (the Body of Christ)- (Rom. 12:5; 1 Cor. 12:12, 27; Eph. 3:3-9; 5:32). This he revealed as part of the dispensation of the mystery we are now in (Eph. 3:2-4; see also Romans 11:25; 16:25; First Corinthians 2:7; 15:51; Ephesians 1:9; 3:3,4,9; 5:32; 6:19; Colossians 1:26,27; 2:2; 4:3; 1 Timothy 3:9). All who know Christ when He returns will go with Him back to Heaven (John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18). Question: Are you sure you know Christ as your Saviour and Lord? If not, ask Him into your life today.

The Galatian Judaizers

Paul made much of the distinction between his gospel (good news) message and that of his predecessors with claims he received it by special revelation (Gal. 1:11-12; see Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:3). With that, he taught a distinct separation between the nation Israel and the Body of Christ and that our salvation in Christ excluded the pronouncements made in Israel’s Law and prophecy specifically to her, because our dispensation is distinctly[8] “not under the law, but under grace” (Rom. 6:14). These prophecies include Israel’s Tribulation given her in time past to occur in the ages to come – aka the latter days (Deut. 4:30; see progressive revelation in Isaiah; Jeremiah; Dan. 9:24-27; Joel; Zeph 1; etc). The Body of Christ was NOT known to the prophets who never mentioned us. We have to be removed BEFORE this chaos begins.

A reference to this appears in Paul’s letter to the Galatian church – troubled by Judaizers trying to force God’s plan for Israel upon the Body of Christ just as many false teachers do today. He wrote, “Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver [Strong’s: Grk exaireō means to tear out; pluck out, rescue] us from [Strong’s: Grk this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father” (Galatians 1:4). Although this can be interpreted as an act of separation from the world, comparing Scripture with Scripture as a hermeneutic requisite provides some interesting PreTrib rapture consistency:

  • The Restrainer (Holy Spirit) will be taken out of (Grk: ek) the way (2 Thess. 2:7)[9]
  • Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from (Grk. ek) the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the Earth” (Revelation 3:10).

Daniel, prophecy and the Revelation

Daniel’s book predicts events swirling around the end times leading to the Revelation of Jesus Christ. The Gentile nations as well as Israel are clearly identified then appear later in Revelation, the fulfillment. Currently the prophecy clock awaits resumption at the 70th week. This cannot happen with the church body on earth because Scripture reveals God never operates simultaneously in His programs. Israel’s Tribulation is part of the prophecy program predicted to her as a prerequisite to the Kingdom, therefore the clock can’t resume while the mystery Body of Christ is here.

To further confirm our absence, God’s word proves the church Body of Christ is NEVER MENTIONED anywhere on earth during this time. While this alone should convince our opponents, it hasn’t. They continue pumping out propaganda in books quoting one another while ignoring this truth. Verify this for yourself. There are admittedly “words” that could be interpreted to be the Body of Christ, contextual use disqualifies it as inconclusive. Therefore, the only deduction making sense is that the church Body which appeared as a mystery (Rom. 16:25) after Daniel’s prophecy clock stopped after the 69th week must be removed in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51; see 2 Thess. 2:7) in order to restart that prophecy clock at the 70th week.

That event is imminent; it’s the Rapture of the church in the heavenlies by Christ and it removes us before Antichrist [10] is revealed and the time of Jacob’s trouble begins with the signing of a seven year covenant of peace (2 Thess 2:6-8; see Dan. 9:27).

Chart: distinctions between Israel and the Church


Israel, a Nation Church, a Body
Prophecy – Earth Mystery – Heaven
Gospel of the Kingdom Gospel of Grace
Prophets of Israel Apostle to the Gentiles (Paul)
Focus on Israel Focus on the Church
Revelation with the Church

(to deliver Israel from Antichrist enemies and establish the Millennial kingdom)

Rapture for the Church

(to deliver us from Israel’s  Tribulation and bring us to Christ in Heaven- John 14:1-3)

Trumpet of angels (Mt 24:31) Trumpet of God (1 Thess. 4:16; Rev 4:1)
Gathering together on Earth

(Mt 24:31; 25:32-33; Mk 13:27)

Catching up into heaven
(1 Thess. 4:17)
He sends His angels to gather the elect

(Mt 24:31; Mt 25:31-32)

The Lord personally gathers His Church
(John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:15-17)
All who survive Israel’s Tribulation

(Mt 25:31-33)

Only the saved
(1 Thess. 4:14)
Trumpet without voice
(Mt 24:31)
Voice of the archangel
(1 Thess. 4:16)
To the Earth (Zech 14:4) In the air (1 Thess. 4:17)
Both sheep and goats are gathered

(Mt 25:31-33)

Only saints are gathered
(1 Thess. 4:14-17)
Signs abound

(Mt 24; Mk 13:24; Acts 2:17-21)

No signs

(Titus 2:13; 1 Thess. 1:10; 4:13-5:3)

A horrible time where all tribes mourn

(Joel 2; Rev 1:7)

A blessed hope and comfort

(John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 4:18; Titus 2:13

All who are alive at this time on Earth
(Mt 24:26; Rev 19:11-16)
Them which sleep, we which are alive
(1 Thess. 4:15-17; 1 Cor. 15:51)
No mention of resurrection of church saints, only Tribulation saints (Mt 24-25; Rev 20:4) Resurrection of dead church saints

(1 Cor. 15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:16)

Comes on a horse (Rev 19:11-16) Comes on His own (1 Thess. 4:16)
The elect are on Earth

(Mt 24-25)

The Church is in Heaven

(Rev 1:12;20 cp. 4:1-5; 19:7-9)

Sheep and goat judgment

(Mt 25:31-33)

Judgment Seat of Christ

(Rom 14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10)

Gathered from four winds (Mk 13:27) Gathered unto the Lord (1 Thess. 4:17)
Separation of mortal people for entrance into the Kingdom (Mt 25:31-36) Translation of saints into immortality

(1 Cor. 15:51-53)

Christ returns with His saints (Zech 12:5; 1 Thess. 2:19; 3:13; Jude 14-15) Christ returns for His saints

(1 Thess. 4:16)

A well-known fact Called a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51)
Leaves them on the Earth

(Mt 25:31-34; Rev 20:6-7)

Takes us to Heavenly mansions

(John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18)

Israel and Gentiles are judged according to works (Mt 25:31-46) Church judged for rewards

(1 Cor. 3:11-15; 2 Cor. 5:10)

Not a friendly encounter

(2 Thess. 1:7-8; Jude 14-15; Rev 19:11-21)

Meet  the Lord on friendly terms

(1 Thess. 4:17)


[1] And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. (Matthew 24:31)

[2] Here is an expressive listing of OT and NT references to the Kingdom: 2 Sam. 7:16; Psalm 85; 86:9; 89; Isa 2:2-4; 11; 14; 35; 52; 60; 62; 65; Jer 33; Ezek 33:21-36:38; 34:11-31; 37:21-28; 40-48; Dan. 2:44; 7:13-14, 26-27; Hos 3; Amos 9; Micah 4-5; Zech 2:4-13; 8; 9:10; 14:9; Matt. 25:34; Rev 11:15; 20:1-7.

[3] For it is the day of the LORD’S vengeance, and the year of recompences for the controversy of Zion (Isa. 34:8).  For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge him of his adversaries: and the sword shall devour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk with their blood: for the Lord GOD of hosts hath a sacrifice in the north country by the river Euphrates (Jer. 46:10).

[4] The definition of the word mystery given by Webster’s 1828 Dictionary of English Words is “a profound secret; something wholly unknown or something kept cautiously concealed, and therefore exciting curiosity or wonder . . . in religion, anything in the character or attributes of God, or in the economy of divine providence, which is not revealed to man.” Both the Body of Christ and the Rapture fit this description perfectly.

[5] And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction. Ye therefore, beloved, seeing ye know these things before, beware lest ye also, being led away with the error of the wicked, fall from your own stedfastness. (2 Peter 3:15-17)

[6] Ek is also used in Rev. 3:10 by the Lord in His promise to the Philadelphia church: “Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from (ek) the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the Earth.”

[7] In a ten point PreTrib Rapture apologetic article, brother Geoffrey Grider, Editor of Now the End Begins, offers this: THE RAPTURE IS THE ‘BLESSED HOPE’ WHILE THE SECOND COMING IS A DAY TO BE GREATLY FEARED. We start with this one first because it is the one difference most overlooked in a study of the differences between the Rapture and the Second Coming. In Titus 2:13, talking about the Rapture, Paul calls it “the Blessed Hope”, a day of great comfort and joy. But in Amos 5:18, talking about the Day of the Lord, which is in fact the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, God tells us that it is a day of “great woe”, and greatly to be feared! Now, how can the Rapture and the Second Coming possibly be the same? Read Joel 3 for more on the ferocity and woefulness of the Second Coming. Paul calls the Rapture of the Church the “day of Christ”. The Second Coming is called the “day of the Lord”. The day of Christ is to be looked forward to, the Day of the Lord to be feared. If you are someone who believes the Bible, then I could stop this article right here as I have established my case well beyond the shadow of any doubt, reasonable or otherwise. But for  you who are ” fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken” then we have added another 9 rock-solid reasons why the Rapture of the Church and the Second Coming of Jesus Christ cannot be the same event. “Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;” Titus 2:13 (KJV) – The Rapture

“That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand.” 2 Thessalonians 2:2 (KJV) – The Rapture

“Woe unto you that desire the day of the LORD! to what end is it for you? the day of the LORD is darkness, and not light.” Amos 5:18 (KJV) – The Second Coming (Revelation)

“Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it.” Isaiah 13:9 (KJV) – The Second Coming (revelation). Source:

[8] A dispensation is simply a period of time whereby God deals with man differently than in other periods. Example, Adam was told NOT to eat from a particular tree; Noah was told to build an ark; Abraham was told to go to Canaan, and so forth.

[9] May I reiterate by comparing Scripture with Scripture. The Greek word for “out of” Paul used here is “ek” which is the same Greek word the Lord Jesus used in Rev. 3:10 when promising to keep the church “from the hour of temptation” we know to be the tribulation (Deut. 4:30; Jer. 30-31; etc.

[10]Antichrist, aka the beast. This “Beast” is the “little horn” of (Dan_7:24-26), and “desolator” of (Dan_9:27), the “abomination of desolation” of (Mat_24:15), the “man of sin” of (2Th_2:4-8), Earth’s last and most awful tyrant, Satan’s fell instrument of wrath and hatred against God and the Jewish saints. He is, perhaps, identical with the rider on the white horse of (Rev_6:2), who begins by the peaceful conquest of three of the ten kingdoms into which the former Roman empire will then be divided, but who soon establishes the ecclesiastical and governmental tyranny described in Daniel 7, 9, 11; Revelation 13. To him, Satan gives the power which he offered to Christ. (Mat_4:8); (Mat_4:9); (Rev_13:4). (Old Scofield Study Bible)

Rapture-Tribulation Revelation Conundrums

Dr. Mike Johnston

“But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory” (1 Corinthians 2:7).

Rightly dividing the word begins with God overseeing from creation (Gen. 1:1) [1] two overarching programs of “prophecy” and “mystery” both existing since the world began. The former concerns Earth, the latter heaven (Gen. 1:1). God’s program for Earth was well known in PROPHECY for ISRAEL – God’s preeminent nation on Earth – and a coming Earthly kingdom and Temple in Jerusalem (Ezek. 40-48; see Rev. 11:1-2) progressively unfolded to her “by the mouth of the prophets since the world began” (Luke 1:70). His program for Heaven was unknown to the prophets. It is the MYSTERY of the BODY OF CHRIST and our inheritance in Heaven with Christ (Eph. 1:3, 20; 2:6), “kept secret since the world began” (Rom. 16:25).

When considering God’s program for Earth, we must follow the trail beginning in Genesis and continuing through the first half of Acts [2] – where a prophetic pattern is progressively dispensed[3] regarding the Jewish kingdom and Israel’s Messiah King outlined in the following facts:

FACT: God plans for an earthly Kingdom. (Gen. 1-2; Jer. 23:5-6; Matt. 25:34).

FACT: God chose and covenanted with Abraham as the progenitor of the Kingdom nation of Israel bequeathing him the land of the Canaanites (Gen. 15:18; 17:1-14). He then commissioned him as prophet (Gen. 20:7) and the father of Israel (Gen. 17:5; Deut. 9:5; Matt. 3:9; Luke 1:55; etc) whereby blessing would flow through his family – Jesus is the ultimate blessing – from His calling to her Kingdom (Gen. 12:1-8; 13:14-18; 15; 17; see Ex. 19:5; etc) and on throughout the earth.

FACT: God expanded the Abrahamic Covenant four times to include Kingdom laws (Ex. 20:1 – 31:18);  land (Deut. 30:1-10); and a Jewish born King with a New Covenant Kingdom Constitution (2 Sam. 7:8-16; Matt. 5-7; Jer. 31:31-40; Heb. 8:8, 13; 12:24).

FACT: God specified Israel’s Kingdom timeline of 70 weeks of 7 years (490 years) to be fulfilled by Israel (Dan. 9:24-27). “When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law” (Gal. 4:4) who offered Israel her Kingdom, and was rejected precisely at the end of the 69th week just as Daniel prophesied (Luke 1:32-33; Matt. 4:17; Dan. 9:244-26). Just as the first 483 years had to be fulfilled by Israel, so must the final 7 years.

FACT: The rejection of the King and His kingdom temporarily blinded and diminished Israel (Rom. 11:12, 25). During this interim, the mystery Body that had been hidden from the prophets (Col. 1:26) was manifest and Daniel’s seventieth week for Israel was placed on hold until “the fulness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25) and “he who now letteth … be taken out of the way” (2 Thess. 2:7). [4] At that point, “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph 1:15) aka Israel’s Tribulation (Deut. 4:30-31; Matt. 24:21, 29; Rev. 7:14) will be ready to begin.

FACT: The Revelation of Jesus Christ occurs in Israel “immediately after Israel’s Tribulation of those days” (Matt. 24:29) to consummate the Covenant’s by inaugurating the thousand years Millennial Kingdom of Israel’s Messiah in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 7:8-16; Ezek. 34:11-31; Zech. 14; Rev. 19:11-20:7).

FACT: With Israel’s Covenants fulfilled concerning the Kingdom – and bear in mind they MUST BE – eternity will begin.

Prophecy and Mystery transitional confusion

The Rapture-Tribulation-Revelation debate continues to reveal the blindness of our opponents to what really happened in the first century AD is on a par with Israel (Rom. 11:25). In that state, they all refuse to accept that the PreTrib rapture is a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51-52) within a mystery (Rom. 16:25) having no connection to the revelation, and will present unsolvable riddles to all who insist on conflating the two.

God moved from prophecy to mystery some two thousand years ago after the wholesale rejection of the Messiah. Israel diminished (Rom. 11:12) as witnessed in the ministry of Peter, apostle to the circumcision,[5] which gave way for the Body of Christ – aka the uncircumcision – to manifest as the mystery under the ministry of Paul our apostle (study carefully Rom. 11:11-25).

This was not a fluid transition and many Jews didn’t understand it and were not supportive of it. In fact, Paul’s mystery dogma triggered confusion so intense it called for a church council in Acts 15 to assess the validity of OT Law and issue rulings on the new teachings which are no more accepted today than when Peter issued the following admonition in his Second Epistle to Jewish[6] believers:

“And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction. Ye therefore, beloved, seeing ye know these things before, beware lest ye also, being led away with the error of the wicked, fall from your own stedfastness” (2 Peter 3:15-17 – bold added). [7]

Before we begin

The drama in the first century Peter explained exists today among certain Bible believers caught in a time warp, confused by conventional OT/NT division, [8] and thus blind to the mystery. What follows pulls back the curtain on many problems created by rejecting right division between prophecy and mystery with one probing question: “What rapture, tribulation, and revelation conundrums are created by Bible students rejecting Pauline doctrine?”

Please let me clarify what I’m suggesting by explaining what I am not.

I’m NOT naïve enough to think any single conundrum among the five dozen or so I’ve listed will prove a thing to a cynic. In truth, nothing short of a trip to Heaven can do that.

What I am suggesting, however, is the inconceivability that the following enigmas could exist together in any eschatological framework without presenting a formidable body of evidence refuting anti-PreTrib speculations while rendering them about as plausible as the universe accidentally belching forth from nowhere and out of nothing but time, chance, and an imaginative mind.

Conundrums: Compelling or Coincidental?

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is NOT for the Body of Christ – by providence, purpose, or prophecy. There are no Scripture references to the church Body of Christ on earth for a single moment during Israel’s Tribulation.[9] All such references are the reveries of rapture haters desperate to put us here. Consider that the Body of Christ was not known and is never mentioned by any of the prophets; we are NEVER seen in any Tribulation passages. As inconvenient as this is to our opponents, here’s their conundrum. Israel and the Gentile nations involved with her are indisputably identifiable on earth from Scripture. There isn’t a single verse indisputably placing the church Body here for a single moment during this time without pulling from context the words “saints”, “elect”, and “disciple(s)” which in Daniel, the Olivet Discourse, and Revelation reference Israel.

CONUNDRUM: There is no Scriptural purpose for the church Body to be here during Israel’s Tribulation. Israel is blind, living in rebellion, and her kingdom has not yet been inaugurated. But it will. The Tribulation judgment prepares her for that. Since Scripture tells us God has a purpose for everything He does (Ecc. 3:1, 17; Isa. 14:26; Jer. 26:3; Rom. 8:28; 9:11; Eph. 1:9, 11; 3:11; 2 Tim. 1:9), and since redemption – available to all by faith (John 1:12; Eph. 2:8-10) – was fully completed as announced on the cross by Christ (John 19:30), what purpose would Israel’s Tribulation which is Earth centered and targets Israel primarily for judgment preparatory for the Kingdom – serve in the life of the church Body which is said to be saved, sealed, and seated in the heavenlies in Christ at this very moment (Eph. 1:13-14; 2:6)? [10]

CONUNDRUM: Regarding PostTrib speculators, how can the saints of the 2nd coming meet [11] the Lord in the air to be taken directly to the Father’s House (John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:17) while at the same time returning with Christ to the Earth (Col. 3:4; 1 Thess. 2:19; 3:13)?

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is a time of wrath and Christians are not appointed to wrath, but salvation or deliverance. [12] Advocates of PreWrath hasten to step in to claim a victory but do so at their hermeneutic peril. Revelation teaches us that Israel’s Tribulation is a time of the wrath of God [13] from beginning to end (Zeph. 1:15, 18; Rev. 6:16-17; 11:18; 14:10; 16:19; 19:15). First the wrath of God through the Lamb (6:16-17); then the wrath of God through the devil (Rev. 12:12), and finally the wrath of God through the Father (Rev. 14-19). Nahum revealed that “God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies” (Nahum 1:2).  Christians are not His enemy. We are His Body and His Bride. As such, we are to wait for Christ “which delivered us from the wrath to come” (1 Thess. 1:10) because “God hath not appointed us to wrath” (1 Thess 5:9).

CONUNDRUM: The first mention of the Tribulation is a prophecy by Moses to Israel for the latter days and concerns the restoration of the Abrahamic Covenant (Deut. 4:30-31). There are no prophecies in the Bible repeating this to the church Body. NONE!

CONUNDRUM: If every living saint is to be raptured up at the 2nd coming, why would the Lord Jesus need to have a sheep and goat judgment to divide His people (Matt 25:31-33)?

CONUNDRUM: We have provided a plethora of Scripture proving Israel’s Tribulation is a time of severe judgment on Israel and the world. Since Israel’s Tribulation begins with the wrath of the Lamb (Rev. 6:16-17) if the Body/Bride of Christ is here, wouldn’t this equate to Christ pouring out his wrath upon Himself, and upon His Bride?

CONUNDRUM: Why do the writings of Paul focus upon the obedient walk of the Christian on Earth, yet not one word is provided for their behavior during the trials and horrors of Tribulation? He never even mentioned refusing the mark of the beast (Rev 13:18) which meant missing eternal life (14:9-12). Is this an egregious oversight on Holy Spirit’s part? [HINT: We’re not here]

CONUNDRUM: If the rapture and the revelation are the same, how does the church get to Heaven as Jesus promised (John 14:2-3) prior to returning with Christ at His Revelation (1 Thess. 2:19; Jude 14; Rev 19:11)?

CONUNDRUM: If the church Body [14] must be here for Israel’s Tribulation in order to prove ourselves worthy, then would it not stand to reason that our salvation wasn’t completed at Calvary and we are in fact saved by works?

CONUNDRUM: Why do the judgments of Revelation, which anti-PreTrib advocates maintain are intended to purify the church, appear to do just the opposite to people (Rev 16:8-9)?

CONUNDRUM: In a court of law, cases are generally won when witnesses are able to identify the defendant at the scene of the crime. If the Body of Christ were here during Israel’s Tribulation, it wouldn’t be necessary for false witnesses to skew the testimony by redefining terms like “saints” and “elect” and “disciples” which in Daniel, the Olivet Discourse, and the book of Revelation refer to Israel. The Holy Spirit would have provided clear, indisputable prophetic witnesses to help identify us on Earth during that time as He did with Israel and the Gentile nations would He not?

CONUNDRUM: If Paul had taught the Thessalonian Church that they were to go through Israel’s Tribulation, why did they become so frantic when they had been told by a letter claiming to be from Paul that they were in it (2 Thess. 2:2)?[15]

CONUNDRUM: Every word of God is flawlessly set in the context of Scripture as God eternally decreed. Why when addressing the activities involving the church in the final Book which leads to the Revelation of Christ to Israel to set up the Davidic Kingdom, did He use the Greek word ekklesia [16] (church) 19 times in the first three chapters of Revelation, and yet never again until the 22nd Chapter? There are only three possible explanations: First, it was an oversight, which omniscience renders impossible. Second, it was intentional to keep us from knowing we’re destined for Israel’s Tribulation horrors of wrath of God (Rev. 6-19) which is equally absurd. Third, the Holy Spirit was confirming to us that the heavenly Body of Christ, His church – promised deliverance “from the wrath to come” (1 Thess. 1:10), and “the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the Earth” (Revelation 3:10; see also 1 Thess. 1:10; 5:9; 2 Thess. 2:5-7; Rev. 4:1) is NOT here! In all honesty, this is the only choice an impartial eye can see through the factual, exegetical, objective lens.

CONUNDRUM: If the church were to be here during Israel’s Tribulation, what was the purpose of Paul changing the use of pronouns from we in (1 Thess. 4:13-17) [17],  to  they, them, and others (1 Thess. 5:3-7)?

CONUNDRUM: Posttribbers generally teach the Tribulation is a purifying epoch. Moreover, they teach that according to Rev. 3:10, God will protect us through it rather than deliver us from it via the rapture. But wait! If Israel’s Tribulation is intended to perfect and purify us as they allege, then why would the Lord even attempt to shield us from it (Rev 3:10)? This is inconsistent. Dr. David Reagan writes this: “But God’s promise to the Church during Israel’s Tribulation is not one of protection, but one of deliverance. Jesus said that when the signs pointing to Israel’s Tribulation “begin to take place,” believers are to look up because their “redemption is drawing near” (Luke 21:28). He also urged believers to pray that they might “escape all these things” (Luke 21:36). [18]

CONUNDRUM: PreTrib rapture antagonists tell us that since the blessed hope is after Israel’s Tribulation, we are to be looking forward with great hope, for Antichrist and the horrors of Israel’s Tribulation which will include taking the mark in order to eat. Then, if we survive martyrdom, we’ll experience the rapture. Therefore, comfort one another with these words? (1 Thess. 4:18)!

CONUNDRUM: Paul obviously taught the resurrection of the church Body of Christ – aka the rapture – would occur before Israel’s Tribulation. Teachers appeared not to deny the rapture, with false claims it had already occurred: “Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some” (2 Timothy 2:18). Be honest here. If the rapture is anything but PreTrib, this makes no sense whatsoever.

CONUNDRUM: Since prophecy warns that Israel’s Tribulation will be the most frightening and unparalleled event in history, wouldn’t it have been incumbent upon the Holy Spirit to mention the Body of Christ in the Old Testament or upon Paul our apostle to provide the Body of Christ with clear preparation information?

CONUNDRUM: Since the rapture is the event that transforms our earthly mortal bodies into immortal heavenly bodies (1 Cor. 15:51-54; 1 Thess. 4:13-18), how did the Elders which are in Heaven BEFORE Israel’s Tribulation get their bodies prior to Israel’s Tribulation if there is no PreTrib rapture (Rev 4:1-5)?

CONUNDRUM: The crown of righteousness (2 Tim 4:8) stands out as a special reward given only to those who long for His appearing. Now think about this. If Christians have to be here during the entire 7 year Tribulation, wouldn’t every Christian receive this crown since everyone would be eager for His appearing?

CONUNDRUM: If the church is here during Israel’s Tribulation, why is Israel singled out for protection and not the Body of Christ (Rev 12:13-17)?

CONUNDRUM: If we are here during Israel’s Tribulation and receive our transformed, immortal bodies at a posttrib rapture with everybody else who has survived the holocaust, who will populate the millennial Earth?[19]

CONUNDRUM: If the church is to be here for Israel’s Tribulation, why does God only select and seal 144,000 Jews[20] for protection (Rev 7:1-8; 9:4 [21]; 14:1)?

CONUNDRUM: Why is the term “mystery” which means something not previously known used to describe the rapture resurrection (1 Cor. 15:51), when the 2nd coming and the future resurrection were clearly taught in prophetic Scripture?

CONUNDRUM: Why is it Post-trib rapturists stand alone in their belief of just one coming?

CONUNDRUM: While attempting to place the last trump of the rapture (1 Cor. 15:51) with the seventh trumpet in Revelation (Rev 11:15), PreTrib rapture antagonists  fail to explain that the 7th trumpet is blown before the end of Israel’s Tribulation, before the seven bowl judgments (Rev 16), and way before the revelation of Christ that they claim they’re part of (Rev 19:11). All other positions would agree that while posttribbers are zealous in their attempt to use this trumpet in their favor, it actually stands as a bold witness against their erroneous interpretations. Can you explain this if this is your position?

CONUNDRUM: If the rapture is at the end of Israel’s Tribulation, what is the purpose of the saints leaving the Earth at all to meet the Lord in the air (1 Thess. 4:17)?

CONUNDRUM: If the rapture is posttrib, why did Paul encourage the Thessalonians to comfort one another rather than insisting they begin stockpiling food, clothing, and water, in preparation for possible martyrdom like Dave MacPherson (more on him later) and other post-tribbers do? Do our adversaries know something Paul and the Holy Spirit didn’t?

CONUNDRUM: If the church Body of Christ is here during Israel’s Tribulation, why are only 144,000 Jews from the twelve tribes of Israel alone doing the evangelism work (Rev. 7; 14)?

CONUNDRUM: If there is only one coming of Christ, how can 1 Thess. 2:19; 3:13; and Jude 1:14 be harmonized with 1 Cor. 15:51-53 and 1 Thess. 4:13-18? How can we come with Him when He comes for us?

CONUNDRUM: The rapture is when Christ returns in the air and saints’ are caught up to meet the Lord with transformed bodies (1 Cor. 15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:13-18), then are escorted to Heaven with Him (John 14:2-3). If the posttrib rapture position is scriptural, why then do the passages that should have included these events seem to teach something completely different (Mt 24; Rev 19)?

CONUNDRUM: How can the church which is said to be permanently sealed and seated in the heavenlies in Christ (Eph 1:13-14; 2:6; Phil 3:20; Col. 3:1-3) possibly be on Earth experiencing the wrath of God’s judgment?

CONUNDRUM: There are at least four opinions of when the Lord will return relative to Israel’s tribulation. Knowing truth is the enemy of Satan, why would all the other rapture positions forego their differences and join in such acerbic attacks against the PreTrib rapture if it is not the true position?

CONUNDRUM: In the 4th Century AD, the heretick Origen, Alexandrian manuscript [22] editor, and his Romanist progeny Augustine led eschatology from the literal to allegorical interpretation of the Bible.[23] Up to that time, PreTrib was a commonly held view.

CONUNDRUM: Anti PreTrib rapturists salivating over placing the church Body on Earth during Israel’s Tribulation holocaust for “purification” purposes are in fact teaching a form of the Romanist heresy known as purgatory.

CONUNDRUM: How do you explain the phrase, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches” which occurs seven times in the first three chapters (2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22) being edited in Revelation 13:9, by removing the church: “If any man have an ear, let him hear”?

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is Jacob’s trouble and Jacob is Israel (Jeremiah 30:3-7). Where does this designation change to include the mystery body of Christ? (chapters and verses, please)

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is an OT prophecy where all prophecy originated. From the very first mention (Deut. 4:30-31) it has been a prediction of a future period of punitive and preparatory judgment upon Israel and the world [24] preceding the Revelation of Jesus Christ to set up the Millennial Kingdom in Jerusalem foretold by Daniel the prophet, the Lord Jesus, and the Apostle John in the Revelation. Where is the first prophetic OT mention for the Body of Christ? [HINT: there isn’t one]

CONUNDRUM: Why is Israel, not the church, given a place of refuge in the wilderness- (Rev 12:1-6)?

CONUNDRUM: This is the dispensation of grace. Grace is mentioned in Revelation two times only (Rev. 1:4; 22:21). Why is it never mentioned during the period of Israel’s Tribulation?

CONUNDRUM: The Body of Christ suffering punishment of God’s wrath during Israel’s Tribulation completely negates the work of Christ on the cross depicted in Isaiah 53!

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is Jewish, purposed to being Israel back into conformity with God plan for the Earthly Kingdom.  [25]

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is severe punishment of sin and the ungodly beginning with Jews- (Deut. 30:7; 32:43; Isa. 2:19-21; Isa. 13; 24; 34;  Jer. 30-31; Dan. 7; 12:1; Joel 2; Zephaniah, see 1:15; Matt. 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev. 6-19). The church Body is never mentioned and can’t be found for a single moment without redefining a few terms which refer to Israel.

CONUNDRUM: If the Body of Christ is supposed to be here during Israel’s Tribulation – an epoch event to punish sin   and prepare Israel (Isa. 2:19-21; Isa. 13, see v13; Isa. 13; 24; 26; 34; Jer. 30-31; Dan. 7; 12:1; Joel 2; Zephaniah, see 1:15); Matt. 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev. 6-19) for the Jewish Kingdom – what is the purpose for it since Christ purified and sanctified the Body of Christ once and for all, seating us in the heavenlies permanently in the Beloved?

CONUNDRUM: Israel isn’t saved yet: (Rom 10:1; 11:26-27); the church has been redeemed by the blood of the Lamb (Eph 1:7; Rom 10:9-10,13) delivered from the wrath to come (1 Thess. 1:10; 5:9). Israel’s Tribulation will lead Israel to accepting the Lord at the conclusion (Zech. 14; Rev. 19:11). There is NO reason the church Body would need to be here except in the minds of our opponents.

CONUNDRUM: Israel’s Tribulation is centralized around Jerusalem- (Dan. 7:23; Zech. 12-14; Matt. 24:21-22; Luke 21:20, 24; Rev 13:3,8,14-18). It will re-establish God’s covenant with Israel- (Deut 4:30-31). The church Body can’t be seen because we aren’t here.

CONUNDRUM: The origin of Israel’s Tribulation is Old Testament prophetic and Jewish (Deut. 4:30-31). It’s focus is Earth culminating in a Jewish Kingdom (Rev. 19:11) and renewal of the Jewish Covenant (Deut. 4:31). The church Body wasn’t known, isn’t mentioned, and can’t be clearly identified anywhere on Earth during this time.

CONUNDRUM: Christ promised to keep believers from (ek) “the hour of temptation” not in it (Revelation 3:10). Anti-PreTrib rapture advocates, desperate to protect a speculative dogma have made another baleful blunder by insinuating the Lord’s promise here in Rev. 3:10 was simply to protect us during Jacob’s trouble not remove us from it. However, several problems surface in connection to this: First, the Greek word translated “from” is ek. Used 917 times in NT, only once (Gal 3:8) is it translated through. Interestingly, this is the same word the Holy Spirit chose for Second Thessalonians where Paul discusses the Antichrist and the restraining force holding him at bay: “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out (ek) of the way” (2 Thessalonians 2:7). This seems to coincide- much to the dismay of Anti-PreTrib rapturists- with our being taken away in the mystery rapture. Second, our adversaries claiming God’s protection during Israel’s holocaust aren’t reading a King James Bible. During Israel’s Tribulation – which is God’s wrath from beginning to end [26] two-thirds (2/3) of those alive will die (Rev. 6:9-11; 7:9-10; Rev. 20:4). Third, if Israel’s Tribulation were supposed to purify us, why would God protect us from it? Finally, since there is no reason to place us here in the midst of Israel’s Tribulation, and no Scripture to support it, why join forces with agenda driven men who in the name of “fairness” twist the Bible in a hundred different ways simply to place us in Israel’s Tribulation where we can’t be seen and we don’t belong?

CONUNDRUM: The fact that the prophets that predicted Israel’s Tribulation NEVER KNEW about the Body of Christ and NEVER ONCE mentioned us here on Earth during that time.

CONUNDRUM: The Word of God correlates marriage and the church beautifully (Eph 5:22-33). If the Church is the Bride of Christ, anything but a PreTrib rapture presents a horrible scenario. Picture if you will a man marrying his sweetheart, and just before the wedding night where they consummate their vows, he drops her off in the midst of a bloody, throatslitting jihad with this ominous send off, “Prove your love for me, honey, and I’ll be back for you in seven years.” Although indefensible and extremely inconvenient, PreTrib rapture antagonists force this unnatural act of sadism on the part of the Saviour.

CONUNDRUM: The Restrainer (Holy Spirit) will be “taken out of the way” (2 Thess. 2:7; same Greek ek in Rev. 3:10 “from”). This means only that one aspect of His ministry will cease, that of restraint of sin in the world.[27] Since the church Body of Christ is currently God’s representative entity today, our removal is necessary for the prophecy clock to resume with Israel once again as His messenger.

CONUNDRUM: We are commanded to look for Christ, which is imminent and could happen at any moment, not Tribulation, signs, Antichrist, or anything else- (Titus 2:13). Every rapture position except PreTrib provides a possible timetable to Christ’s return. God’s Word PROMISES Christ will rescue us from the coming wrath (1 Thess. 1:10). This deliverance constitutes our present, imminent, blessed hope (Titus 2:13). The imminent, pre-Tribulation rapture was taught[28] by the early church [29]. Paul never said the church would be part of Israel’s Tribulation or else he would have taught them how to prepare for it and how to recognize Antichrist and reject his mark. Never a word! In light of the fact Paul is our apostle, this doesn’t begin to make any sense to anyone except an anti-PreTrib rapture promoter.

CONUNDRUM: Glorified bodies cannot reproduce, or die as evidenced in the Millennium (Rev 20:1-7). The rapture will transform mortal bodies into immortal bodies (1 Cor. 15:51-56). Children will be born and they will die (Isa 65:20-25). Glorified saints will rule with Christ (1 Cor. 6:2; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 5:10; 20:4).

CONUNDRUM: The Holy Spirit’s designation as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; see Dan. 12:1; Zeph. 1:15) is purposeful. Jacob is Israel, not the Body of Christ (Gen. 32:28). Moreover, Daniel prophesied the tribulation to Israel as “thy people” (Dan. 9:24-27) (Jews) and called it the “time of trouble” (Dan. 12:1). Zephaniah called it a “day of trouble” (Zeph. 1:15). Without redefining the word “saints” in Daniel and Revelation, which refer to Israel, where did the Holy Spirit mention the church Body of Christ? [HINT: He didn’t]

CONUNDRUM: The rules of hermeneutics such as the First Mention Principle prove God assigned Israel’s Tribulation to Israel (Deut. 4:30) then through progressive revelation reinforced it. It has NEVER been assigned to the Body of Christ.

CONUNDRUM: The fact that Israel and the anti-Semitic Gentile nations are clearly visible on Earth during “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph. 1:15) there are no Scriptures picturing the Body of Christ without manipulating the words “saints” and “elect” and “disciples” which is Daniel, the Olivet Discourse, and Revelation care clearly associated with Israel.

CONUNDRUM: The distinction between the Rapture for the Body of Christ and the Revelation of Christ to Israel prove Israel’s Tribulation is NOT for the Body of Christ. Prophecy is for the nation Israel, NOT the Body of Christ.

CONUNDRUM: Our opponents often have such an emotional investment in their theory they become calloused to any idea but their own. Since they must force every passage about the coming of Christ into a Revelation meaning, they leave no room for passages that seem to contradict that thinking. Remember, things that are different are not the same. For instance: Compare 1 Thess. 1:10 with 1 Thess. 2:19; 1 Thess. 1:10 with Rev. 6:16-17. Either there are two separate comings or the Bible contradicts itself.

With all due respect, may I challenge you to begin an experiment – as I did several decades ago – using the prophecy mystery division you’ve learned in this book. As you begin being honest with the context of the passage including any similarities and or dissimilarities remember, things that are different are NOT the same.

CONUNDRUM: The Scriptural promises that the heavenly Body of Christ would escape this divine punishment for Israel (1 Thess. 1:10; 5:9; 2 Thess. 2:5-7; Rev. 3:10; see also Rev. 4:1) – because it is NOT FOR US.

CONUNDRUM: “Some who believe that the Church will go through Israel’s Tribulation often point to the example of Noah and his family. They were left on the Earth as God poured out His wrath, but they were protected by the Lord. But this example ignores the fact that Enoch was raptured out of the world before the flood began (Genesis 5:24). I believe Enoch is a symbolic type of the Church and Noah and his family are a type of the Jewish remnant that will be protected through the Tribulation until the day that the Messiah returns.” –Dr David Reagan[30]

CONUNDRUM: Right division alone makes sense of the enigmatic considerations listed in this section. If you are still struggling with the rapture question, it’s because you are fighting against rightly dividing the Bible between what the prophets gave to Israel concerning the Kingdom on Earth (Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21), and what Christ gave to Paul concerning the mystery Body of Christ and our inheritance in Heaven consummated at the rapture (Rom. 16:25).

“Therefore seeing we have this ministry, as we have received mercy, we faint not; But have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God” (2 Corinthians 4:1-2).

[1] In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth (Gen. 1:1)

[2] Bear in mind Acts is a transitional book, from prophecy to mystery about midway through.

[3] God dispensing His truth over time in a variety of ways to a variety of people is known as dispensationalism. As the truth was given, individuals were held accountable for obeying it. Example, Adam was told not to eat from a particular tree. Noah was told to build an ark. Abraham was told to go to Canaan, and so on.

[4] The Body of Christ that appeared as a mystery (Rom. 16:25) will likewise disappear in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51-52) called the rapture.

[5] The Lord Jesus was minister of the circumcision, too: Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: (Romans 15:8)

[6] Peter was the apostle to the Jews as Paul was to the Gentiles. Study carefully Gal. 1:12 which explains the source of Paul’s mysterious doctrine and Gal. 2:6-9 which explained the important distinction between the ministries and messages of James, Cephas (Peter), John, and himself.

[7] Peter’s warnings to those rejecting Pauline theology are stern. He begins by affirming Paul’s conversion (brother) and authority calling his writings scriptures although admitting Paul’s doctrines were hard to be understood (a mystery) and thus opposed by the unlearned and unstable (alluding to Jews under the Old Covenant prophecy program) who wrested against moving from prophecy to mystery causing their own spiritual destruction. Beware, he warns, of being led away from Paul is the implication, by the error of the wicked which apparently was already causing men to fall from doctrinal stedfastness (see Eph. 4:13-14).

[8] They teach the NT began with Matt. 1, when in fact it did not begin until the death of Christ. This means all 4 gospels are part of the OT narrative.

[9] There aren’t any. Dr. Gerald Stanton states that even anti-PreTrib antagonist kingpin Dr. George Ladd can’t produce any such verses. Kept from the Hour (p. 310

[10] Dr. David Reagan offers this for your consideration: “There really is no purpose for the Church to be present during the Tribulation. It is a time of the pouring out of God’s wrath upon those who have rejected His grace, love and mercy. There are some who argue that the Church must be “purged” during the Tribulation to purify it. But to me, this idea is absurd. The blood of Jesus is sufficient to cleanse us of all our sins. That is an accomplished fact for those who have put their faith in Jesus (Ephesians 5:26-27). Furthermore, the concept of purging the Church during the Tribulation converts the whole period into a Protestant version of purgatory. It also violates the wedding imagery that the Bible uses to describe the relationship between Christ and His Church. Jesus is not going to beat up His Bride for seven years and then marry her!”

[11] The Greek word is ap-an’tay-sis, which means a friendly encounter. Stanton says the cognate verb, ap-an’tah-o is used seven times, none of which continued on with Christ or the person, but were sent elsewhere. Posttribbers tell us that it’s use in the NT describes those meeting someone returning with them in the direction they were originally headed, thereby proving that we indeed meet Christ in the air, but immediately return with Him to Earth (like a yo-yo). In Matt 25, the bridegroom returned for his bride and she went with him back in the opposite direction to his father’s house. Acts 28:15 the brothers met Paul’s party and traveled with them to Rome. Again the study of the evidence proves that a sand foundation is most difficult to build on.

[12] The Greek word here is sōtēria. The KJV translators also rendered it “deliver” as in Acts 7:25 and then in Luke 1:71 revealed how Christ “saved” Israel from her earthly enemies to come. I believe this further reveals how the heavenly mystery church has been “saved” from the wrath to come upon the earth to try all the earth dwellers featuring Israel (see Rev. 3:10).

[13] “…for great is the wrath of the LORD that is kindled against us, because our fathers have not hearkened unto the words of this book, to do according unto all that which is written concerning us” (2 Kings 22:13).

[14] It is a mutually agreed upon fact that there will be a church present during the tribulation, but it will be the professing, idolatrous whore who rides the beast, not the spotless, blood bought bride of Christ!

[15]Actually they should have been rejoicing that Christ would be coming in seven years for them!

[16] English Bible translation is church.

[17] If posttribbers would only let the Bible speak for itself the debate would end. This was no coincidence that the Holy Spirit placed the rapture before the Day of the Lord in this passage.


[19]Children will be born during this prosperous time (Isa 65:22-23; Zech 8:5).

[20] Those who refuse to allow the Bible to speak for itself have spiritualized these Jews and making them the church. However great care is given by the Holy Spirit to tell us the very tribes these men came from. Further, there are no more distinction between Jews and Gentiles in the church (1 Cor 12:12-13; Eph 2:11-18). Note earlier in our study regarding the difference between Israel and the Church

[21] This is undeniably the wrath of God and the Lamb (Rev 6:16-17).

[22] The family of manuscripts from which all modernist translations originate. Only the KJV is solely from the Antiochan family.

[23] In Origen’s system of interpretation, he often denied the ordinary sense of the text, and replaced it with allegories which he made up. These allegories then became the real meaning of the text. There was no way to challenge the allegories on the basis of the text, since what the text actually said was no longer what it meant. It was, therefore, no longer necessary that the allegory actually come from the text, because it was the allegory that was authoritative. The theology which the allegory illustrated was imposed upon the text. In this allegorical system, when the text said, “Israel,” it meant “the Church” and not the Jews, so long as the promise or comment in the text was good. If the promise or comment in the text was not good, then “Israel” still meant “the Jews,” and not “the Church.” His theology determined how the text was to be understood, rather than the text determining what should be understood and believed (copied from

[24] Christ took our judgment upon Himself. The church does not need the judgment of the tribulation which is proven from the Pentateuch to the Apocalypse to be for unsaved Israel and the Gentile nations of the world.

[25] Study the book of Judges and the cycle of rebellion, retribution, and repentance; see also Jer. 30-31; Matthew 24-25; Rev. 6-19; etc.

[26] The tribulation from beginning to end is God’s wrath. The wrath of God through the Lamb (Rev. 6-11); the wrath of God through Satan (Rev. 12-13); the wrath of God through angels and the Lamb (Rev. 14-19). “…for great is the wrath of the LORD that is kindled against us, because our fathers have not hearkened unto the words of this book, to do according unto all that which is written concerning us” (2 Kings 22:13).

[27] The Bible & Future Events, Leon Wood, Zondervan, p.71-72

[28] From JR Church’s Prophecy in the News, April 1995, p.27-28: Two ancient sources, the Shepherd of Hermes (AD 110) and two books by Ephraim the Syrian (AD 376) which were recently translated into English) prove the apostolic authority of the pretrib rapture. Although it could be argued that these sources aren’t to be regarded as Scripture, it also could be argued that neither are the authorities freely quoted by the mid, pre-wrath, partial and post-trib camp (Gundry, Ladd, MacPherson, etc).

[29] Posttribulationists like J. Barton Payne also admit that the early fathers held to an imminency viewpoint.  He surmises: It must therefore be concluded that the denial of the imminence of the Lord’s coming on the part of post-tribulationists who have reacted against dispensationalism is not legitimate. . . . Belief in the imminency of the return of Jesus was the uniform hope of the early church; and it was only with the rise of a detailed application of Bible prophecy, at the close of the second century, to yet future history that its truth was questioned. J. Barton Payne, The Imminent Appearing of Christ (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1962), 102. Source:


Fake News Headline: “The PreTrib Rapture is a Giant Hoax that didn’t exist until 1830”

Dr. Mike Johnston

We’ve established in this dissertation that right division systematically dismantles any attack against the PreTrib rapture, including this one. Therefore, discussions with those pushing this narrative are unproductive and inconsequential; especially when the truth is known about their own fake news story.

Researching what many to believe is like a cannon ball in a rapture believer’s belly, I discovered the 1830 rapture origin story is itself a giant hoax invented some 40 years ago by a disingenuous and disgruntled rapture-loathing anti-Zionist[1] named Dave MacPherson (DM). [2] Oddly, what MacPherson – a marketing mastermind – lacks as an honest journalist, he possesses as a crafty book peddler incorporating half-truths mixed with character assassinations reminiscent of Joseph Stalin’s ruthless secret police chief, Lavrentiy Beria who bragged, “Show me the man and I’ll find you the crime.”

In case you’re not familiar with MacPherson, he has successfully nurtured from nothing a culture of cretins as disrespectful to the brethren as they are to the facts. His shtick, underwritten by imaginative innuendo, represents the rapture as a pervasive fraud with an elaborate cover up on the part of the Plymouth Brethren to hide a dubious origin MacPherson claims [3] didn’t exist until 1830. According to the MacPherson mythos, that was the year a demon-possessed charismatic member of Edward Irving’s[4] Catholic Apostolic Church by the name of Margaret MacDonald [5] conjured it up in a vision; recorded and published later by her apostolic husband Robert Norton. [6] Without a smidgeon of conviction or conscience, MacPherson glides effortlessly from story teller to character assassin by picturing a Plymouth Brethren [7] scholar named John Nelson Darby [8] as a compromising theological thug who jettisoned his integrity to pilfer MacDonald’s vision even though Darby had publicly labeled it of demonic origin.[9] He then charges Pastor Darby with stealing it to take credit for it, then propagate it to the world through the reference Bible of another nemesis, CI Scofield.[10] All rumored in DM’s multi-volume fantasy franchise to be part of an arcane scheme Darby, Scofield[11] and the Plymouth Brethren cooked up in some dimly lit room for no earthly reason other than the back slapping joy they all shared in knowing they were deceiving innocent Christian people.

Dave didn’t tell the whole truth

Evidence is overwhelming that MacPherson constructed his empire from not much more than imagination and ingenious book marketing methods. This he accomplished by publishing the same fact flouting manuscript under a variety of seductive titles making allegations devoid of credible corroboration.

While conducting my due diligence for this book, I found several great and godly scholars who after fact checking MacPherson were less than convinced by the sources he offers for the conclusions he retails. While many could be cited, I’ll quote two here to save space.

In Kept from the Hour, Dr. Gerald Stanton makes this observation: “It will immediately be apparent that his book titles are provocative, if not abusive. There has been no “cover-up” or “hoax,” for Pretrib authors and leaders have arrived at their conclusion from Biblical exegesis rather than from any presumed history of the doctrine, and most certainly with no desire to defraud. Furthermore, to attack the morality and integrity of fellow believers just to further an eschatological opinion is a disgrace to the Name and cause of Christ.”

Another observation of MacPherson’s distortions comes from respected theologian and former President of Dallas Theological Seminary, the late Dr. John Walvoord, “The whole controversy as aroused by Dave MacPherson’s claims has so little supporting evidence … one wonders how he can write his book with a straight face. Pretribulationists should be indebted to Dave MacPherson for exposing the facts, namely, that there is no proof that MacDonald … originated the pretribulation rapture teaching.” [12]

Although evidence is not favorable to MacPherson, his musings for four decades have been pounded like a jungle drum nonstop; first by him and then through the list of loquacious lackeys pushing his suppositions underwritten by a daisy chain of unknown bibliographical references featuring his name atop the catbird seat. Wondering how a man can command such blind loyalty the Holy Spirit led me to re-reading this old proverb under new light with a fresh application for Mac’s mob: “A wicked doer giveth heed to false lips; and a liar giveth ear to a naughty tongue” (Proverbs 17:4).

Consideration by contrast

MacPherson’s literature is clumsy, condescending, and combative. He has no use for anyone believing in the PreTrib rapture implying they are of subpar intelligence and in a conspiracy only Satan could orchestrate. His nastiness notwithstanding, here’s a small list of impeccable Biblical scholars he consigns to Hell simply for disagreeing with him.

Isaac Watts, JN Darby, CI Scofield, John Gill, Morgan Edwards, DL Moody, RA Torrey, Clarence Larkin, Lewis Sperry Chafer. William R. Newell, J. Vernon McGee, David Jeremiah, Lehman Strauss, Jack Van Impe, Merrill Unger, Dave Reagan, Sir Robert Anderson. Charles Swindoll, Jerry Falwell, Jack Hyles, John Walvoord, Charles Ryrie, Dave Hunt, Noah Hutchings, J. Dwight Pentecost, Zola Levitt, J. Randall Price, Dave Breese, Jimmy DeYoung, AC Gaebelein, MR DeHaan, JR Church, HA Ironside, Gary Stearman, Tommy Ice, Hal Lindsey, Ed Hindson, Grant Jeffrey, Chuck Missler, and many more. [13]

The following links provide a partial list of additional research information from Biblical scholars who have themselves thoroughly researched and refuted most every misrepresentation, misquote,  and misapplication MacPherson has made over the past 40 years of attacks against the “blessed hope”.

  • Church, JR (deceased) Founder of Prophecy in the News

  • Ice, Dr. Thomas: Director of the PreTrib Research Center

  • Examining a PreTrib Rapture Statement

  • Marotta, Frank: Brethren scholar

  • Missler, Dr. Chuck: Byzantine Text Discovery: Ephraem The Syrian

  • Reagan, Dr. David: Director of Lamb & Lion Ministries

  • Strandberg, Todd: Director of Rapture Ready

  • Stunt, Timothy CF: Brethren scholar

  • Wilkinson, Dr. Paul: Brethren scholar

[1] MacPherson fails to mark the clear distinction between Israel and the church Body, often painting Christians supporting Jews as evil “pretrib rapture merchandisers and Christian Zionists” who DM claims are more interested in the government than in the gospel.

[2] MacPherson’s venom contaminates everything he touches. I’ve studied his feckless philosophy cover to cover and frankly the spirit driving him makes my skin crawl. Therefore, I’ll not pull any punches in unmasking him and the nasty things he writes about decent men whose only “crime” is in disagreeing with him (Rom. 16:17-18).

[3] MacPherson offers what he swears is proof, but since he is the only person having the sources, scholars have concluded his “findings” are NOT to be trusted.

[4] Edward Irving was a Scottish clergyman, generally regarded as the main figure behind the foundation of the Catholic Apostolic Church which believed in modern day apostles and sign gifts. In other words they were charismatics. [THE TRIBULATION OF CONTROVERSY: A REVIEW ARTICLE Timothy C. F. Stunt]

[5] If Margaret MacDonald is the originator of the PreTrib rapture, why are there no records of her contesting Darby’s theft?

[6] “It is only with some difficulty that one can identify what MacPherson calls her ‘pretribulationist’ teaching in the transcript of 1840, and when in 1861 Norton quoted from her prophecy he omitted the passage which referred to ‘the fiery trial’ which ‘will be for the purging and purifying of the real members of the body of Jesus’—a passage which clearly assumes that Christians will go through the tribulation.” [THE TRIBULATION OF CONTROVERSY: A REVIEW ARTICLE Timothy C. F. Stunt]

[7] Pastor Darby is known as the father of modern dispensationalism. MacPherson’s hatred for dispensationalism (calling it a heresy) stems from his refusal to rightly divide the Word and allow Israel her rightful place in God’s overall economy. His writings are inexorably anti-Semitic.

[8] In his commentary on Revelation, William R. Newell called Darby the greatest interpreter of the Bible since Paul – A collection of Darby’s writings are available at Plymouth Brethren archives:

[9] Researcher Billy Crone traveled to Europe including Scotland where he discovered Darby no doubt heard about MacDonald’s 1830 charismatic manifestation, but considered them demonic and not of God. It also appears in the book by Wilkinson, Paul Richard (2007). For Zion’s Sake: Christian Zionism and the Role of John Nelson Darby. Paternoster. pp. 192–93.

[10] If Darby laid claim to MacDonald’s vision – which incidentally was partial mid trib and post trib, why didn’t Scofield give him credit?

[11] MacPherson loathes both Darby and Scofield. For a clear report on the life of Scofield, may I suggest Dr. Robert Sumner’s piece:

[12] More information available at MacDonald: (visionary)

[13] Once again, if you buy MacPherson’s narrative, you have to believe as he does that he’s the chosen and enlightened one and EVERY ONE else including this list of renowned PreTrib Bible scholars are half baked malevolent morons deceiving the church with the devil’s lie.

Israel is God’s Preeminent Nation on Earth


Dr. Mike Johnston

3 Israel is God’s Preeminent Nation on Earth

“Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the Earth is mine: And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel” (Exodus 19:5-6).

The greatest obstacle to Biblical exegesis comes from not recognizing the division between God’s prophecy program for Israel and mystery program for the Body of Christ. In fact, until one understands this, they will depreciate Israel’s Earthly preeminence by mixing the two programs together which leads to hermeneutic chaos.

Understanding right division God placed in Scripture is a prerequisite to arriving at right conclusions. To begin with, Israel is God’s only Covenant nation (Ex. 19:5; Psa. 119:9). She enjoys a divinely appointed exclusivity not shared with any other nation on the planet. She is elect (Isa. 45:4), she is a peculiar treasure (Ex. 19:5; Deut. 14:2; Psa. 135:4; 1 Pet. 2:9), and she is blessed and protected (Gen. 12:2-3). [1] Treating Israel maliciously [2] is the equivalent of touching the apple of His eye (Zech. 2:8). No other nation has enjoyed Israel’s rich Earthly history and no other nation can claim her glorious Earthly future. Israel is special in every way.

Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer concurs,

“An elect, sacred, and everlasting nation is the plan or purpose of God for Israel. This people came into being miraculously as the seed of Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. They are the object of immeasurable covenants and promises and this becomes their major identification or destination, for the covenants are secured or sealed by the act of Jehovah. Israel stands alone, in distinction from all other nations combined. Those many nations are known as Gentiles, but Israelites as Jews. Individual Jews are such because of the fact that they were born into covenant relations with God by a physical birth. Herein lies a great contrast, since Christians are such because they were born by a spiritual birth into right relations with God. Because Israel sustains a covenant relationship to God, He gave them a specific rule of life through Moses. Keeping the rule of life, however, did not and could not make them children of Jehovah’s covenant. They were to keep the rule of life because they were already in the covenant.” (Systematic Theology, 1948)

Israel was Chosen for a Kingdom

“The LORD shall establish thee an holy people unto himself, as he hath sworn unto thee, if thou shalt keep the commandments of the LORD thy God, and walk in his ways. And all people of the Earth shall see that thou art called by the name of the LORD; and they shall be afraid of thee” (Deuteronomy 28:9-10).

“And what one nation in the Earth is like thy people, even like Israel, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make him a name, and to do for you great things and terrible, for thy land, before thy people …” (2 Samuel 7:23)?

“Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS” (Jeremiah 23:5-6).

“Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both” (Zechariah 6:13).

Prophecy proves Israel is very special to God, and His prophets have always guided and guarded her (Amos 3:7; Luke 1:70; Acts 3:12-26). Beginning in Genesis and continuing through the first half of Acts [3] – a prophetic pattern is progressively dispensed [4] regarding the Earthly Jewish kingdom and Israel’s Messiah King. Here’s an overview of God’s prophecy program leading to Israel’s Kingdom.

  1. An Earthly Kingdom has been on God’s agenda from the beginning (Gen. 1-2; Jer. 23:5-6; Matt. 25:34).
  2. God’s will and His Word have been revealed through God’s inspired servants the prophets (2 Kings 9:7; 17:13; Ezra 9:11; see especially Amos 3:7).
  3. Israel exists from prophecy spoken by the mouth of His holy prophets since the world began (Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21).
  4. God chose and Covenanted with Abraham (Gen. 15:18; 17:1-14) commissioning him as prophet (Gen. 20:7) and the father of Israel (Gen. 17:5; Deut. 9:5; Matt. 3:9; Luke 1:55; etc) whereby blessing would flow through his family, from His calling to her Kingdom (Gen. 12:1-8; 13:14-18; 15; 17; see Ex. 19:5; etc). [Jesus is the ultimate blessing].
  5. Over the years, God expanded the Abrahamic Covenantfour times to include Kingdom laws (Ex. 20:1 – 31:18);  land (Deut. 30:1-10); and a Jewish born King with a New Covenant Constitution for the Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:8-16; Matt. 5-7; Jer. 31:31-40).
  6. God specified Israel’s Kingdomwould commence following a 490 year prophecy of seventy weeks of seven years broken into two parts: 483 years and 7 years that the nation Israel herself must fulfill (Dan. 9:24-27).
  7. “When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law” (Gal. 4:4) who offered Israel her Kingdom, and was rejected precisely at the end of the 69th week just as Daniel prophesied (Luke 1:32-33; Matt. 4:17; Dan. 9:244-26).
  8. Israel has been diminished (Rom. 11:12) and exists today in spiritual blindness (Rom. 11:25). As such, Daniel’s seventieth weekis currently on hold until “he who now letteth … be taken out of the way” (2 Thess. 2:7) which will occur when “the fulness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25) and “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph 1:15) aka Israel’s Tribulation (Deut. 4:30-31; Matt. 24:21, 29; Rev. 7:14) begins.
  9. The Revelation of JesusChrist occurs in Israel immediately “after Israel’s Tribulation of those days” (Matt. 24:29) to consummate the Covenant’s by inaugurating the thousand year Millennial Kingdom in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 7:8-16; Ezek. 34:11-31; Zech. 14; Rev. 19:11-20:7).
  10. With Israel’s Covenants fulfilled concerning the Kingdom – and bear in mind they MUST BE – eternity will begin.

Right Division and Israel’s Kingdom

When the Word is rightly divided, we find that it is Israel, not the church, that was promised a coming kingdom of heaven [5] which occupied much of the preaching of the prophets (Luke 1:68-80; Acts 3:12-26), John the Baptist, Christ and the twelve disciples (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; see Gal. 2:7-9). It will one day emerge in fulfillment of the unconditional Davidic Covenant which was built upon the Abrahamic (Gen. 17). Prophecy – via progressive mention or revelation – reveals this kingdom will last on Earth 1000 years (revealed in Rev. 20:2-7) of unprecedented peace (Micah 4:2-4; Isaiah 32:17-18), joy (Isaiah 61:7, 10), comfort (Isaiah 40:1-2), prosperity, and health (Amos 9:13-15; Joel 2:28-29). It’s location is Jerusalem, the blessed Zion of God (Isa. 30:19).

It’s important, therefore, that we understand God’s purpose for Earth – revealed thoroughly in prophecy – is a kingdom in Israel: “All thy works shall praise thee, O LORD; and thy saints [Jews] shall bless thee. They shall speak of the glory of thy kingdom, and talk of thy power; To make known to the sons of men his mighty acts, and the glorious majesty of his kingdom. Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and thy dominion endureth throughout all generations. (Psalms 145:10-13 – my comment in brackets).

Prophecy for Earth ——————->Kingdom in Israel

Time past Ages to come
Genesis – John Hebrews – Revelation
1st Coming of Christ to Israel 2nd Coming of Christ to Israel
King and Kingdom rejected King and Kingdom received

Prophecy tells us the glorious appearance of the Messiah to Earth [6] to establish Israel’s kingdom under the lineage of David in the city of Jerusalem (Isa. 24:23; Mic. 4:7).

The fact is, the inauguration of Israel’s Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:8-16) has been in the works for thousands of years. The Lord Jesus revealed its commencement following what’s termed “the sheep and goat judgment”: “Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 25:34). Therefore, when studying the Kingdom, keep in mind the following factors revealed by God through the prophets:

  • It is for Israel that the Earthly kingdom was “prepared from the foundation of the world” (Matt. 25:34) and through whom the Messiah was born and to whom He was presented, rejected, and yet one day will return to fulfill the Lord Jesus’s prophetic prayer, “thy kingdom come, thy will be done, in Earth…” (Matt. 6:10).
  • It is to Israel the Lord Jesus explained this Davidic CovenantKingdom will be inaugurated following His visible Revelation in Jerusalem (Matt. 24; see Zech. 14; Rev. 1:7; 19:11-21) “immediately after the Tribulation” (Matt. 24:21, 29). [7]
  • It is Israel to whom God’s prophets presented five covenants [8] guiding and guaranteeing her future on Earth, including a lineage, land, laws, and a Lord – King – that began with the Abrahamic Covenant(Gen. 15:18) and will continue through the Millennium.

In our next section, we’ll learn that Israel’s Kingdom is Earth’s destiny and five unilateral Covenants guarantee this by leading Israel from her calling to the Kingdom.

Israel’s 5 Covenants
Guide and Guarantee her Kingdom

Purposes for Israel and the promises God made with Israel are hers exclusively and everlastingly. [i] These are unveiled beginning with the calling of Abrahamic and the first Jewish Covenant. From there, five Covenants tell the story of God’s forever-elect Israel. While scant numbers of Bible students have stopped to realize this, fewer have really factored in just what this means. Below is a summary of the five covenants and their relationship to the coming King and Kingdom in Israel. [9]

The Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 12:1-4; 13:14-17; 15; 17:1-8) – the Kingdom Family is Chosen

“In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates … And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after” (Genesis 15:18; 17:7). [10]

This Covenant is the foundation of all 5 Covenants. In seed form, it provided blessing for the nation Israel from which the Kingdom would come. By divine decree, Abraham received posterity, prosperity, perpetuity, and property which included the title deed to the land of Canaan, future home of the Earthly kingdom. The blessing of Israel to the world notwithstanding, Christianity owes everything to this Covenant. The prophets of God, the majority of writers of the inerrant Word (the Bible), and foremost on the list our precious Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ have all come through God’s Covenant with Abraham.

While Israel has violated this Covenant with Abraham many times, it has never been revoked. It played a major prophetic role in Christ’s first coming (Luke 1:72; Acts 3:24-25) and has often served as the basis for God rescuing Israel. “If they shall confess their iniquity, and the iniquity of their fathers, with their trespass which they trespassed against me, and that also they have walked contrary unto me; And that I also have walked contrary unto them, and have brought them into the land of their enemies; if then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, and they then accept of the punishment of their iniquity: Then will I remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land.” (Leviticus 26:40-42) (see Ezekiel 16:60)

The Mosaic Covenant (Ex. 20:1 – 31:18) – the Kingdom Nation is Assembled and its Laws are Enacted

Kingdom Laws written on tables of stone will during the Kingdom be written in the fleshly tables of the heart.

Abraham believed God which was imputed to him for righteousness. The Law was given through Moses as its mediator for the purpose of governing Israel’s (national) relationship with God. It was mainly made up of (a) the commandments, the express will of God, (b) the judgments, the social and civic life of Israel, (c) and the ordinances. This system ceased when the mystery Body convened and the Temple was destroyed. Once the mystery church is taken in the mystery rapture, Daniel’s seventieth week will begin and this legal system will again be in place and the third temple will be rebuilt to host sacrificial Levitical Judaism (Dan. 9:27; 2 Thess. 2:4).

The Land Covenant (Deut. 30:1-10) – Title Deed to Kingdom Land is Guaranteed

It is an unconditional guarantee that Israel’s Kingdom will be located in the Covenant land [11] of Israel. This is a great assurance given the aggressive actions by the UN and Islamic nations who are trying to steal Jerusalem from Israel (study Zech. 12-14).

“And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. And the LORD thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, and on them that hate thee, which persecuted thee. And thou shalt return and obey the voice of the LORD, and do all his commandments which I command thee this day. And the LORD thy God will make thee plenteous in every work of thine hand, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, for good: for the LORD will again rejoice over thee for good, as he rejoiced over thy fathers” (Deuteronomy 30:5-9).

Israel was driven from Jerusalem in 70 AD by Roman armies destroying the city and the Temple. In the latter days God promises to restore her to the land – including a third temple (2 Thess. 2:4) – and the commensurate blessing given Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the original Covenant (see Deut. 4:30-31; Lev. 26:42; Ezek. 16:60; etc). We see this coming to pass on May 14, 1948 when Israel once again became a functioning nation poised for her prophetic future. [12]Praise the Lord!

The Davidic Covenant  (2 Sam. 7:4-16; 1 Chron. 17:3-15) – the Kingdom and the King’s seed are established in Perpetuity

God promised David in perpetuity that his seed – ultimately the Lord Jesus – would occupy a perpetual throne in Jerusalem.

“(David) He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever. (2 Samuel 7:13-16)

The New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-40)
– the Kingdom people in their Kingdom land, with the King’s Seed on the throne obeying Kingdom Laws now written on the heart

It is a New Covenant with Israel in contrast with the old (Mosaic, “which they broke,” Jer. 31:32). Christ Jesus is the Mediator (in His blood) of this New Covenant which was inaugurated at the cross and is described in Scripture as, “enacted on better promises” (Heb. 8:6). The Mediator of this covenant has become, for all mankind, “the source of eternal salvation” (Heb. 5:9) to all who obey Him; as well as the cornerstone and Head of the Church (Eph. 2:20-22; Col. 1:18; Eph. 5:23) which is being built during this dispensation; individuals called out from both Jews and Gentiles alike. Ultimately and literally, this new covenant with its unconditional and eternal blessings will be established with NATIONAL Israel at Christ’s second advent to Earth. Now before discussing His second advent, let’s discuss His first.

God’s Prophets Progressively Reveal
Israel’s King and Kingdom

Prophecy concerns Israel primarily (Hos. 12:10; Luke 1:70; 24:25; Acts 3:21). It is to Israel the Lord speaks, “Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the Earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages; That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Shew yourselves. They shall feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places. They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them: for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them. And I will make all my mountains a way, and my highways shall be exalted” (Isaiah 49:8-11).

“Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet …

(Jesus Christ) shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end” (Matthew 1:22; Luke 1:32-33). The Lord Jesus revealed that this Kingdom has been a major component in God’s prophecy program for Earth since creation: “Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you [13] from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 25:34).

Israel’s Kingdom is God’s plan revealed to the prophets and initially revealed in part to Abraham. When God promised to bless Abraham as a blessing to the world, Christ was in view. When the Lord Jesus appeared in Israel offering the Kingdom, Israel’s leaders mocked and maligned His ministry and message while devising what they hoped would be a final plan for destroying both.  Notwithstanding, Christ perfectly fulfilled all prophecy [14] about His first coming and He will fulfill all prophecy about His seconding coming just as literally. He was and is God in the flesh (Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; Matt. 1:23; John 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:16; etc). In that capacity, He is the Premier Personage (Gen. 3:15; Deut. 18:15-19) of Scripture, seen in every one of the 66 inerrant books. Christ was incarnated on Earth (Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; Matt. 1:23) for Israel as the representative of the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 15-17; Acts 3:13) to fulfill the Davidic Covenant (Matt. 4:17) to be administered under a New Covenant (Jer. 31:31; Heb. 8:8-13; 12:24) in the coming Kingdom.

Jesus Conducted Messianic Ministry to Israel

The Lord Jesus – of all who have ever lived on Earth – understood the difference between Israel and the Body of Christ. His ministry purpose spotlighted His nation. However, Bible teachers – pastors included – often open the Bible at Matthew and begin misleading their congregants with Kingdom teaching from Christ that while profitable for us is NOT personally to us. Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer adds some forceful clarity here:

“There is a very dangerous and entirely baseless sentiment abroad which assumes that every teaching of Jesus must be binding during this age simply because He said it. The fact is forgotten that the Lord Jesus, while living under, keeping, and applying the Law of Moses, also taught the principles of His future Kingdom, and, at the end of His ministry and in relation to His Cross, He also anticipated the teachings of grace. If this threefold division of the teachings of Jesus is not recognized, there can be nothing but confusion of mind and consequent contradiction of truth” (cited by Miles Stanford in his article, “The Teachings of the Kingdom”).

Understand. This Kingdom is covenanted to Israel and although Jesus is our Lord and Saviour by faith (Rom. 10:9-10, 13), He is uniquely the Jew’s Messiah. He was manifest at a time designated by God through prophecy (Matt. 2:23; Gal. 4:4). “That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet” appears 14 times reinforcing all God promised (Matthew 1:22; 2:15,17,23; 4:14; 8:17; 12:17; 13:35; 21:4; 22:31; 27:9,35; Acts 2:16; Romans 4:18). “From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven [ii] is at hand … But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew 4:17; 15:24).

So vividly significant was the Lord’s ministry to Israel that it was a shock to the disciples (Luke 18:31-34) when He explained His death and resurrection to them. In fact, Peter took Him and began to rebuke Him after which the Lord harshly corrected him(Mark 8:32-33). However, after Jesus revealed the mystery to Paul, he confirmed the Lord’s primary mission was to in fact to Israel, stating, “Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision[15] for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers” (Romans 15:8-itallics added).

Remember, until the shedding of blood, the Old Covenant was in force. Therefore, all of Christ’s ministry was conducted under an Old Testament setting underwritten by messages He preached concerning Israel’s Kingdom that when misunderstood leads to all manner of misapplication:

  • 4: Jesus began by preaching the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 5-7: Jesus taught the principles of the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 6:10: Jesus prayed “thy kingdom come . . . in Earth” in the presence of the Jews
  • 13: Jesus gave parables of the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 21-23; 26-27: Jesus presented the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 24-25: Jesus promised[16] He would return to establish the Jewish Kingdom to Jews. As a side note, in Matthew 24:29 the Lord predicted He would return to set up the Kingdom immediately after the time of Tribulation which originated in the prophecy program for Israel. When studied in context, Christ gave the Olivet Discourse to describe the holocaust in Jerusalemprior to His return. Even so, this single verse in Matthew 24:29 continues to be the premier “gotcha” moment used by anti-PreTrib proponents who ignore setting to advance their argument. Question: Since the Olivet Discourse is incessantly quoted to “prove” a post-Tribulation rapture, would it matter that the entire teaching was delivered from a strict Old Covenant setting where the Body of Christ wasn’t known and was never in view? If you answered no, then the remainder of this treatise will be meaningless because your study system is outcome based eisegesis rather than objective based exegesis.

Israel Diminished at
Rejection of Christ’s Kingdom

“Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, [17] And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the Earth be blessed. Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities” (Acts 3:24-26; see Gen. 12:1-3; 22:18).

With the above in mind, remember that Daniel’s prophecy of 490 years (Dan. 9:24-27) was specifically to and for Israel, leading to the Kingdom. It codified for her a future involving seventy weeks [18] of seven years that must be fulfilled by Israel “thy people” (Dan. 9:24-27). Later, when Christ presented His Kingdom to the lost sheep of Israel in fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy, He was cut off at the seventieth week just as Daniel predicted (see Dan. 9:25-27), causing the diminishing and ultimate blindness of Israel (Rom. 11:12, 25) while leaving one week of seven years that according to the prophetic word must be fulfilled by Israel, “thy people” (Dan. 9:15, 16, 19, 24; 10:14; 12:1). Once again, prophecy verifies God’s message and messengers. Everything predicted about the first coming of the Lord Jesus came true. Therefore, if you had no more evidence than that, Christ’s incarnation on Earth and subsequent Kingdom offer provide proof of the absolute trustworthiness of the Bible. However, Israel rejected the pure and accepted the profane, ignoring God’s specific warnings such as this from Ezekiel, “Wherefore, as I live, saith the Lord GOD; Surely, because thou hast defiled my sanctuary with all thy detestable things, and with all thine abominations, therefore will I also diminish thee; neither shall mine eye spare, neither will I have any pity” (Ezekiel 5:11). Israel’s diminishing occurred after three corporate rejections of Christ and His Kingdom in Jerusalem before the High Priest.

Israel had three Davidic Covenant Kingdom offers

  • Jesus offered the Kingdom to Israel (Matt. 4-20, 22-27. Rejection beginning with the Triumphal entry (Matt. 21), by religious leaders (Matt 23), later by High Priest and elders (Matt. 26:3, 51, 57, 58, 62, 63, 65). Executed by crucifixion (27)
  • Peteroffered the Kingdom to Israel (Acts 2-4) Rejected by High Priest and religious leaders (Acts 4:1, 6, 23; 5:17, 21, 24, 27) Imprisoned (Acts 5; 12) and later executed by crucifixion

(from history, not recorded in the Bible)

  • Stephen offered the Kingdom to Israel (Acts 7). Rejected by High Priest, leaders, and people (Acts 7). Executed by stoning (Acts 7).

Paul observed the diminishing while extolling the result, which accrued to our benefit as a Body of Christ, “I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy. Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness” (Romans 11:11-12)?

The Disciples’ Questions about the Covenant Kingdom

From the three kingdom offers and rejections we discussed in the previous section, Israel diminished with her prophetic destiny set aside (Dan. 9:24-27; Rom. 9-11). Make no mistake, Christ’s kingdom rejection and subsequent crucifixion landed a blow to His followers. However, it didn’t change Israel’s ultimate future, which was foremost on the minds of His closest disciples who continued to inquire about it right to the end.

First question(s) about the Kingdom

The disciples knew that the Earthly Covenant Kingdom in Israel is God’s program outlined by the prophets. They preached the Kingdom with Jesus for about three years or so. In the end, He was rejected and their hopes dashed. The Olivet Discourse was a private briefing to four of Jesus’ closest men: Peter, James, John, and Andrew (Mark 13:3) who asked Him concerning the establishment of the Kingdom just been rejected by the elders of Israel.

It bears noting that these men were patriotic Jewish converts following Christ. In simple understandable terms, they were recognized ministers of the circumcision aka the Jews – (Gal. 2:6-9), awaiting the Kingdom with many others (study Matthew – John; Acts 3). Keep in mind that Christ’s ministry to the disciples and Israel was Old Covenant and Kingdom oriented.

From the beginning, Christ sent these Disciples to the lost sheep of the house of Israel to preach the gospel of the kingdom and gospel of circumcision (Matt. 10:6-7). The fact is, when Jesus explained His death and resurrection, it came as a total shock to the disciples (Luke 18:31-34). Moreover, they knew NOTHING about the mystery Paul preached involving the Body of Christ (Rom. 16:25; Gal. 1:12; 2:6-9; Eph. 3:1-9; study Peter’s words carefully in 2 Pet. 3:15-17) so they were NOT concerned with it. Their focus was the national interests of Israel concerning Christ’s final return to establish the Davidic Covenant Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:8-16; Matt. 24:3; see Acts 1:3-6). Dr. William MacDonald stresses this: “We must remember that these Jewish disciples’ thinking revolved around the glorious age of the Messiah on Earth. They were not thinking about Christ’s coming for the church; they knew little if anything about this phase of His coming. Their expectation was His coming in power and glory to destroy His enemies and rule over the world.” (Believer’s Bible Commentary, 1995)

The setting – vital to exegesis – is very clear:

  • These four men were ministers of the circumcision (to Jews)
  • They were primarily concerned about the Earthly Covenant Kingdom promised to Israel
  • They knew nothing about the mystery Bodyof Christ revealed later to Paul (see Acts 9; study carefully Peter’s explanation and warning – 2 Pet. 3:15-17)

Therefore, unless gripped by an agenda, it’s incumbent upon us to be honest with the setting.

These Jewish patriots were pre-Pauline meaning they were primarily concerned about the Kingdom. Since that’s an established fact, why would the Lord Jesus insert information into His answer about the mystery Body of Christ that these men didn’t know about, didn’t ask about, and didn’t exist at the time anyway?

Answer, He wouldn’t. The fact is, these men were asking questions as Jews concerned about the future Davidic Covenant Kingdom up until the day He ascended.[19] In the Olivet Discourse, Jesus outlined the signs describing Israel’s Tribulation (Matt. 24:4-28), and His return at the conclusion of it to separate sheep from goats for the Kingdom prepared from the foundation of the world:

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, [see Appendices for a chart of these occurrences] and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the Earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other … When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 24:29-31; 25:31-34). [comments in brackets and bold emphasis are mine]

Final question about the Kingdom

The Book of Acts is transitional from prophecy to mystery and reveals the disciples with Christ at the end of His 40 day post-resurrection ministry. These men at this point were still pre-Pauline in their thinking. They knew nothing about the mystery Body of Christ (Gal. 1:12; 2:6-9; see also 2 Pet. 3:15-16) which wouldn’t be revealed until after Paul’s conversion (Acts 9). Their concern centered around Israel’s Kingdom grounded in the five Covenants promised to Jews (2 Sam. 7:8-16). In that setting, they asked:

“Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel” (Acts 1:6)?

He told them to wait for the enabling power from on high (see Joel 2; Acts 1:8) to carry the kingdom message to the world (Matt. 28:19-20). Ten days later the power arrived.

Joel’s prophecy to Israel [20] was fulfilled in Jerusalem on Pentecost (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:17-21) signaling the last days had begun. With the kingdom message fresh on his heart, and overflowing with the fire of the Holy Spirit, Peter preached a soul-stirring message to the Jews: Ye men of Judaea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem (Acts 2:14) highlighting prophecies regarding the Messiah King Christ in OT history.

While some repented, the leaders did not and hope for ratifying the Covenant of the Davidic Kingdom that began with Abraham was rejected for the second time. God later used the heartfelt preaching of Stephen (Acts 7) but for the third time Israel rejected her King and God’s messenger was murdered. This final act of corporate rejection formed a dark spiritual blindness in Israel (Acts 28:26-28; Rom. 9-11; 2 Tim. 1:11) while at the same time halting the 70 week prophetic calendar abruptly at the final week, and drew back the curtain for the mystery program Jesus revealed to Paul that had been completely hidden from the prophets and separate from Israel since the world began (Rom. 16:25).

Pause to consider what you’ve just read about Israel’s historical tie to her future.

With Scripture as our irrefutable evidence, we continue to maintain that no person having trusted the Lord Jesus Christ in this current dispensation will have to endure God’s Tribulation judgment on Israel because the church Body of Christ is part of the mystery program that was unknown by the prophets, and never mentioned by the prophets. In fact, the church Body isn’t clearly identifiable on Earth during Israel’s Tribulation in a single verse of Scripture without redefining the words “saints” and “elect” and “disciples” which in Daniel, the Olivet Discourse, and Revelation connected in some way to Israel or her Tribulation proselytes.

Review of God’s Covenant Kingdom Plans

God chose to bless Abraham and His family [nation of Israel, Jews] as the source of blessing: “And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the Earth be blessed[21] (Genesis 12:2-3). God went on to Covenant with Abraham as the foundation of four Covenants to follow.

David’s seed, which is from the lineage of Abraham, was Covenanted the throne forever:

“And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever” (2 Samuel 7:16). “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS” (Jeremiah 23:5-6).

Daniel saw the Kingdom given to Israel at the Revelation of the Messiah (Christ): “I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.  And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed … But the saints of the most High [Jews] shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever … Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High [Jews]; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom … And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High [Jews], whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him” (Daniel 7:13-14, 18, 22, 27).

Christ came as the Son of Abraham and of David to fulfill the Covenant and claim the throne: “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of AbrahamThy kingdom come. Thy will be done in Earth, as it is in heaven … ” (Matthew 1:1; 6:10).

The Covenant, the Kingdom, and the King were summarily rejected on the day Daniel predicted (Dan. 9:24-25). King Jesus was crucified, yet resurrected, and after forty days of further kingdom instruction (Acts 1:3) – ascended to heaven, and a seat at the right hand of God. Prompted by questions from four Jewish patriots (Peter James, John, and Andrew – Mark 13:3) wondering when Christ would inaugurate Israel’s Kingdom, Jesus promised to return at the end of Israel’s Tribulation (Matt. 24:29; see Zech. 14:4-5; Rev. 19:11; etc) to set up the Covenant kingdom Israel had rejected (Matt. 21-27).

This kingdom rejected at Christ’s first coming, Israel blindly waits at His second coming.

Please keep open your King James Bible for the next chapter so you
can study in context every verse and passage of Scripture I’m going to provide.

[1] And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the Earth be blessed. (Genesis 12:3)

[2] This will become a frightening reality to all the cavalier anti-Semitic Earth dwellers in the last days here with Israel during her Tribulation holocaust. Zechariah made very clear those who seek harm for Israel would be more kindly served while standing in a puddle and grabbing a 22,000 volt power line.

[3] Bear in mind Acts is a transitional book, from prophecy to mystery about midway through.

[4] God dispensing His truth over time in a variety of ways to a variety of people is known as dispensationalism. As the truth was given, individuals were held accountable for obeying it. Example, Adam was told not to eat from a particular tree. Noah was told to build an ark. Abraham was told to go to Canaan, and so on.

[5] The phrase “kingdom of heaven” – which is a term used for the Earthly Davidic Kingdom – is used exclusively by the Lord Jesus 33 times in the Book of Matthew; the Gospel proving to Israel that Jesus was her Messiah and the Kingdom (of heaven) was at hand (Matt 4:17). Moses introduced this (Deuteronomy 11:21).

[6] Dan. 7:13-14; Zech. 14:1-4; compare Matt. 24:29-31; Rev. 1:7; 19:11-21.

[7] It’s important to know that the tribulation constitutes an unprecedented period of punishment, and purification of Israel (Isa. 2:19-21; Isa. 13, see v13; Isa. 13; 24; Jer. 30-31; Dan. 7; 12:1; Joel 2; Zephaniah, see 1:15); Matt. 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev. 6-19) in preparation of the establishment of the Davidic Covenant Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:16; Rev. 20) in Jerusalem following the Revelation of Jesus Christ predicted for Israel in time past (Zech. 14:4; Matt. 24:29-31; 25:31-46; Rev. 19:11-21) to occur in the ages to come. From Genesis to Revelation, whenever the tribulation is mentioned, it is Israel’s and NOT for the Body of Christ, aka the church.

[8] The 5 Covenants God made with Israel unilaterally are as follows:   1. Abrahamic Covenant (God called a family He could bless and that would be a blessing), 2. Mosaic Covenant  (God formed a nation with Laws), 3. Land (Palestinian) Covenant  (God gave Abraham the land and promised Israel would possess it), 4. Davidic Covenant  (God promised the nation a righteous King and an everlasting Kingdom), and the5. New Covenant  (God promised a better covenant established on better promises resting on an accomplished redemption securing the perpetuity and future conversion of Israel).

[9] These are Jewish Covenants. They were NOT made with the Body of Christ.

[10] The strength of this Covenant brought the Lord to Israel’s rescue many times in history: And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.

(Exodus 2:24; see Lev. 26:42, 45, etc). Once again, the Covenant is the hope of Israel’s future: I will remember my covenant with thee in the days of thy youth, and I will establish unto thee an everlasting covenant (Ezek. 16:60; everlasting covenant is also referred to in Psa. 105:10; Isa. 24:5; 55:3; 61:8; Jer. 32:40; Ezek. 37:26; Heb. 13:20).

[11] “The royal land grant that was given to Abraham and his seed through Isaac and Jacob, with an everlasting and unconditional covenant.” Cursed by Mike Evans p80.

[12] Her future is guaranteed in prophecies, not the least of which is Daniel’s seventy weeks which Israel must fulfill (study Daniel 7, 9, and 12 carefully). Scholars teach this seventieth week of seven years will begin at some future point when a sinister figure called Antichrist brokers a pseudo-peace covenant with God’s Covenant people for seven years (see Dan. 9:27) setting in motion once again the prophecy calendar and the beginning of the Tribulation, or time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph. 1:15).

[13] The context here is the sheep and goat judgment by Christ. The word “sheep” is a colloquialism associated with Israel (Jer. 50:6; Matt. 10:6). Bear in mind that while Paul mentioned in Romans 8:36 being “accounted as sheep for the slaughter”, it was a quote from Psalm 44:82 which is a simile of innocence.

[14] He was first mentioned as the seed of the woman in Genesis 3:15 then progressive revealed throughout the Bible. Moses spoke of Him as a coming Jewish Prophet: “The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken … I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.” (Deuteronomy 18:15, 18; see Acts 3:22-23)

[15] Paul distinguished his ministry from Peter’s thusly, “But contrariwise . . . the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter” (Galatians 2:7- italics added).

[16] Anti-PreTrib zealots make a case from nothing here. Since Christ’s offer to set up the Davidic Covenant Kingdom had been rejected out of hand (Matt. 21-23) Peter, James, John, and Andrew came to the Lord Jesus privately to ask when He would inaugurate the Davidic Covenant Kingdom in Israel (Mark 13:3-4). His response forms the Olivet Discourse (Matt. 24-25) focusing on signs of the tribulation – aka time of Jacob’s trouble (Deut. 4:30; Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1) immediately preceding His Revelation return as King of kings to Israel. Bear in mind, Peter, James, and John were exclusive ministers of the circumcision (Gal. 2:7-9).

[17] Ultimately, the great blessing God promised Abraham is available to all of us who have trusted Abraham’s seed the Lord Jesus for our salvation. Yet while we are beneficiaries of this blessing, we were not the original target of the prophecies structuring the Covenant (Rom. 9-11). Israel is.

[18] Daniel is the Rosetta Stone for prophetic understanding; especially the Olivet Discourse and the book of Revelation. Therefore the significance of the seventy weeks from Daniel 9 mustn’t be understated because it predicted the rejection of Christ to the day which immediately stopped the 70 week prophecy clock and allowed for the mystery to be revealed through Paul (Rom. 16:25). “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people [Jews] and upon thy holy city [Jerusalem], to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness [the Kingdom and King], and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy” (Daniel 9:24). The first 69 weeks were fulfilled exactly as planned for Israel, and so will the final week. In other words, the entire 70-week prophecy spoken by Daniel is for Israel which includes the final week. The Body of Christ was not seen, is never mentioned, and will not be here during the time of Jacob’s trouble regardless of how desperate men are to place us here.

[19] Remember the Jewish mind is kingdom oriented. To them, this meant the end of the current world system and the inauguration of the Davidic Kingdom on Earth.

[20] Pentecostal Charismatics wrongly assign this to the church under our new dispensation which has resulted in many heresies, including the Latter Rain Manifest Sons of God blasphemies. Request Latter Rain booklet explaining this.

[21] Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the Earth be blessed. That blessing refers to the Lord Jesus Christ.

Appendix [i]

Excursus on God’s Everlasting Relationship to Israel

And this shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year. And he did as the LORD commanded Moses.  (Leviticus 16:34)

Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the LORD continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant.  (Leviticus 24:8)

And he shall have it, and his seed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood; because he was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Israel.  (Numbers 25:13)

And hath confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant,  (1 Chronicles 16:17) And confirmed the same unto Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant:  (Psalms 105:10)

But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end.  (Isaiah 45:17)

Appendix [ii]

Kingdom of Heaven vs. Kingdom of God


Moses introduced the kingdom of heaven: That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the Earth. (Deuteronomy 11:21)


At Matthew 3:2, Dr. CI Scofield offers this comparison:


(1) The phrase, kingdom of heaven (literally, of the heavens), is peculiar to Matthew and signifies the Messianic Earth rule of Jesus Christ, the Son of David. It is called the kingdom of the heavens because it is the rule of the heavens over the Earth (Mat_6:10) The phrase is derived from Daniel, where it is defined; (Dan_2:34-36); (Dan_2:44); (Dan_7:23-27) as the kingdom which the God of heaven will set up after the destruction by “the stone cut out without hands,” of the Gentile world-system. It is the kingdom covenanted to David’s seed (2Sa_7:7-10) described in the prophets; and confirmed to Jesus the Christ, the Son of Mary, through the angel Gabriel (Luk_1:32-33).


(2) The kingdom of heaven has three aspects in Matthew:


(a) “at hand” from the beginning of the ministry of John the Baptist (Mat_3:2) to the virtual rejection of the King, and the announcement of the new brotherhood (Mat_12:46-50).


(b) in seven “mysteries of the kingdom of heaven,” to be fulfilled during the present age (Mat_13:1-52) to which are to be added the parables of the kingdom of heaven which were spoken after those of Mt. 13, and which have to do with the sphere of Christian profession during this age;


(c) the prophetic aspect — the kingdom to be set up after the return of the King in glory. (Mat_24:29-25); (Mat_24:46); (Luk_19:12-19); (Act_15:14-17).


Dr. Scofield offers further clarification at Matthew 6:33:The kingdom of God is to be distinguished from the kingdom of heaven in five respects:


(1) The kingdom of God is universal, including all moral intelligences willingly subject to the will of God, whether angels, the Church, or saints of past or future dispensations (Luk_13:28-29); (Heb_12:22-23) while the kingdom of heaven is Messianic, mediatorial, and Davidic, and has for its object the establishment of the kingdom of God in the Earth


(2) The kingdom of God is entered only by the new birth (Joh_3:3); (Joh_3:5-7) the kingdom of heaven, during this age, is the sphere of a profession which may be real or false.


(3) Since the kingdom of heaven is the Earthly sphere of the universal kingdom of God, the two have almost all things in common. For this reason many parables and other teachings are spoken of the kingdom of heaven in Matthew, and of the kingdom of God in Mark and Luke. It is the omissions which are significant. The parables of the wheat and tares, and of the net (Mat_13:24-30); (Mat_13:36-43); (Mat_13:47-50) are not spoken of the kingdom of God. In that kingdom there are neither tares nor bad fish. But the parable of the leaven (Mat_13:33) is spoken of the kingdom of God also, for, alas, even the true doctrines of the kingdom are leavened with the errors of which the Pharisees, Sadducees, and the Herodians were the representatives.


(4) The kingdom of God “comes not with outward show” (Luk_17:20) but is chiefly that which is inward and spiritual (Rom_14:17) while the kingdom of heaven is organic, and is to be manifested in glory on the Earth.


(5) The kingdom of heaven merges into the kingdom of God when Christ, having put all enemies under his feet, “shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father” (1Co_15:24-28). (Scofield Reference Bible, 1917)

Right Division in the Final Analyses

Dr. Mike Johnston

Israel’s Tribulation is NOT for the Body of Christ made clear by studying Scripture rightly divided (2 Tim. 2:15). Right division encompasses two programs designed by God (prophecy and mystery) covering three time periods (time past, but now, ages to come) [1] that have both existed “since the world began”. Denominations exist due to conflating prophecy and mystery, which invariably leads to disorder and deception. [2]

Prophecy (Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21) [3] came through the prophets featuring events primarily surrounding Israel’s coming kingdom on earth; while the mystery (Rom. 16:25) [4] was unknown to the prophets and given initially to Paul concerning the church Body of Christ promised an inheritance in heaven where we are now spiritually seated there with Christ. [5]

In this treatise, we further learned that Israel is the preeminent earthly nation and God’s prophets were His messengers guarding and guiding her through 5 unilateral covenants promising perpetuity of lineage (Abrahamic Covenant), land (Land Covenant), Law (Mosaic Covenant), Lordship (Davidic covenant), and longevity (New Covenant). Prophecy – via progressive mention or revelation – reveals this kingdom under Christ the Messiah will last on Earth 1000 years (revealed in Rev. 20:2-7) in unprecedented peace (Micah 4:2-4; Isaiah 32:17-18), joy (Isaiah 61:7, 10), comfort (Isaiah 40:1-2), prosperity, and health (Amos 9:13-15; Joel 2:28-29). Its location is Jerusalem, city of David (2 Kings 14:20), the blessed Zion of God (Isa. 30:19). All of this later confirmed and offered by John the Baptist, Christ, and the twelve disciples (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; John 1:45; see Gal. 2:7-9) in their preaching of the Gospel of the Kingdom.

However, in that the Jews rejected the kingdom before it could begin, [6] God decreed judgment on Israel expressly to prepare and purify her, earth, [7] and collaterally the Gentile nations supporting Israel prior to the Kingdom. We see a foreshadowing of this judgment in the Book of Judges which tells the story of a loving God retrieving a rebellious nation: “And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel; and he said, Because that this people hath transgressed my covenant which I commanded their fathers, and have not hearkened unto my voice; I also will not henceforth drive out any from before them of the nations which Joshua left when he died: That through them I may prove Israel, whether they will keep the way of the LORD to walk therein, as their fathers did keep it, or not” (Judges 2:20-22-bold added).

Scholars refer to this period of judgment on Israel as the doctrine of the Tribulation. Beginning with Moses [8] the prophets through a continuing stream of progressive revelation outlined Israel’s Tribulation very clearly (study Isaiah 24-26; Jer. 30-31; Ezekiel 34-48; Dan. 12; Revelation 6-20). They defined and described it with names such as, the time of (Jacob’s) trouble (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1; Zeph. 1:15); day of His wrath (Psa. 110:5; Isa. 13:9; Ezek. 7:19; Zeph. 1:15; Rev. 6:17; 11:18; 14:10);  and a number of other euphemisms which they linked to the day of the Lord (Isa. 2:12; 13:6, 9; Joel 2:1; see Isa. 13:9, 13; Ezek. 7:19). Jesus further clarified it with events he personally named “tribulation” and “great tribulation” (Matt. 24:21, 29).

If you are a defender of right division between Israel and the church Body, you obviously know the opponents of objective based interpretation too often for too long gotten away with the slip shod wrangling and rearranging of inspired writ in order to sell books to the naïve that support their forejudged conclusions. It’s hardly a surprise that while a chasm of disagreement exists between them, they find great communion in angrily attacking the PreTrib rapture as the lone satanic teaching.

The simple theme and a simple thing

The theme of this book is simple: Right division of Scripture proves that Israel’s Tribulation is NOT for the Body of Christ. The primaries in the Tribulation are Israel and collateral Gentile nations. NOT the church Body.

What our adversaries showcase in their studies is not just an inability to interpret from context, but an inability to exercise good reason also known as common sense. The church couldn’t be included in Israel’s Tribulation. The prophets didn’t know about us and never mentioned us because we were a mystery hidden from them and every other human on earth until the Lord Jesus revealed it to Paul [9] centuries later.

Still not convinced? Let’s verify the facts.

To begin with, I have listed most every passage of Scripture dealing with the time of Jacob’s trouble – aka Jacob’s/Israel’s Tribulation – in this book. You can verify what I’m telling you by studying each of the passages in full context. The church Body is NOT visible in any of them. Moreover, the Holy Spirit used the word church – or churches – 117 times in the King James Bible. It would have been a simple thing for Him to use it in any of the scores of Tribulation passages we’ve looked at.

Still, our opponents claim without apology or authority their position is correct because they ostensibly have Scriptural proof that the church Body is on earth during Israel’s Tribulation. If they are correct, we should be able to verify it with an exhaustive King James concordance such as Strong’s that lists every word in the KJV.

Look up the word church and Body of Christ and study carefully every passage listed. Neither one appears within the context of a single Tribulation passage. That should settle the question but it hasn’t. Our opponents – many who are dazzling disputants (Rom. 16:18) [10]– demand that you to redefine the words “saints”, “elect” and “disciple” to include the Body of Christ even though in context of THE Tribulation they are referring to Israel NOT the church.

Let’s be very clear.

If the church Body of Christ is in Israel’s Tribulation, the Holy Spirit who could have clearly identified us went to great lengths to keep us indisputably knowing it. Israel is indisputably there. The Gentiles nations are also indisputably there, but NEVER the church Body. The fact that He didn’t indisputably identify us on earth at that time is significant to all participants in an honest discussion. The only way Paul’s mystery Body is ever included in Israel’s Tribulation is when rapture haters diddle with context to win an argument rather than be fair with the truth. Over the years this has allowed them ballyhoo how they “win” rapture debate when in fact they don’t tell the truth, they twist it.

Bearing false witness

Our adversaries swear on their Bibles the church Body is in Israel’s Tribulation without the conclusive Scriptural evidence to prove it. Before dismissing this as a matter of personal interpretation, consider the ramifications if this were a court of law.

Let’s suppose you witnessed a crime that a man you hated was charged with. Although you didn’t actually see his face, the crooked prosecutor asked you to testify that you did. Would you succumb to your feelings and assist the prosecutor in convicting a man without evidence simply because you loathed him?

In all honesty, this wouldn’t merely be you offering your interpretation. This would be you bearing false witness.

[1] Time past (Eph. 2:11-12; but now (Eph. 2:4); ages to come (Eph. 2:7).

[2] This is what the cults do, ie SDAs, JWs, Mormons, Romanists, etc.

[3] As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: (Luke 1:70).

[4] Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, (Romans 16:25)

[5] Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, (Ephesians 1:20). And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: (Ephesians 2:6)

[6] Daniel predicted the exact day of Messiah’s rejection leaving a final week yet to be fulfilled (Dan. 9:24-27).

[7] Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger. (Isaiah 13:13). But the LORD is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation. (Jeremiah 10:10)





[8] When thou [Israel] art in tribulation and all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter days  (Deuteronomy 4:30- bracket comment added).

[9] The prophets didn’t know anything about the mystery church Body. Study carefully Romans 16:25; Ephesians 3:1-9; Colossians 1:26).

[10] For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple. (Romans 16:18)



These articles are available for your edification, and research. The Pre-Trib Perspectives Journal is a publication of the Pre-Trib Research Center. These articles are made available courtesy of Evangelist Donald Perkins and According To Prophecy Ministries.

By: Larry V. Crutchfield

” Darby is convinced that without the atoning work of Christ, man must bear the guilt of his sin, and remain at a distance from God without knowledge of Him or of His love.

Few today who would identify themselves as Fundamentalists have ever heard of John Nelson Darby or the Plymouth Brethren. Yet as Ernest R. Sandeen correctly observes in The Roots of Fundamentalism, “much of the thought and attitudes of those who are known as Fundamentalists can be mirrored in the teachings of this man.”1

Darby flourished at a time when the winds of higher criticism were sweeping through the established churches of the British Isles. Christians firmly rooted in orthodoxy were appalled to see unregenerate clergy not only paid out of state coffers, but openly attacking the inspiration and authority of the Word of God. A general disenchantment and despair over the state of the organized church caused many to withdraw and seek fellowship elsewhere.


A number of movements sprang up to bid for the moral high ground of biblical Christianity. One of these was the Bible society movement begun in 1804 with the establishment of the British and Foreign Bible Society in London by a group of theologically conservative Anglicans. Another was the ill-fated anti-liberalism Oxford movement which itself became entangled in an anti-Reformation Romanism. Yet another reaction against the established church, which was to leave its important but largely anonymous signature upon the Fundamentalist movement of a later time, was the movement begun by the “brethren” who were to eventually become known for their meetings at Plymouth. The chief architect and theologian of this movement was the Irish clergyman, J. N. Darby.


John Nelson Darby, namesake of family friend and famed British admiral, Lord Nelson, was born in London of Irish parents on November 18, 1800. Ireland furnished the backdrop for his earliest years of development and education. In 1819 at the age of eighteen, Darby graduated from Trinity College Dublin as a Classical Medalist.

Brilliant, gifted, and with all the right connections, Darby had been groomed for and was practically assured a successful career in law. But a deep spiritual struggle gripped the budding young barrister in his eighteenth year and caused him to abandon that profession after only one year of practice between 1822 and 1823. Darby’s spiritual odyssey lasted until 1825 when he received ordination as deacon in the Church of England. The following year, he was elevated to the priesthood and assigned a curacy in remote County Wicklow, Ireland.

Taking up residence in a peasant’s cottage on a bog, Darby covered the great untamed expanse of his ecclesiastical responsibility on horseback in the manner of John Wesley. His gentleness of spirit and saintly bearing and conduct quickly earned him a place in the hearts of his poor parishioners. So committed was Darby to the instruction of the peasantry in the Word of God that he was seldom found at his own humble dwelling before midnight. His labors did not go unrewarded. Although he expended most of his modest wages and personal inheritance on the local schools and charities, by Darby’s on account Catholics were “becoming protestants at the rate of 600 to 800 a week.”2 Darby’s standard of reward and gain was always in terms of souls won for the kingdom, never silver added to the purse.

For some time the young circuit-riding cleric had been troubled by the condition of the established church, but his demanding duties had prevented any decisive action. He was to receive time for undisturbed reflection on the issue, however, when his horse bolted during one journey through the parish, throwing its rider with tremendous force against a doorjamb. The ensuing lengthy convalescence from the required surgery in Dublin, served as an incubator for Darby’s discontent.

Darby says, “During my solitude, conflicting thoughts increased; but much exercise of soul had the effect of causing the scriptures to gain complete ascendancy over me. I had always owned them to be the Word of God . . . the careful reading of the Acts afforded me a practical picture of the early church; which made me feel deeply the contrast with its actual present state; though still, as ever beloved by God.”3 After only twenty-seven months with the Church of England and thoroughly dissatisfied with what he viewed as rampant Erastianism and clericalism, Darby sought fellowship and ministry outside the established church.

Eventually, Darby made the acquaintance of a group of like-minded believers, members of the Church of England in Dublin, and met with them for prayer and Bible study during the winter of 1827-28. It was this group which would later become known as the Plymouth Brethren. The two guiding principles of the movement were to be the breaking of bread every Lord’s Day, and ministry based upon the call of Christ rather than the ordination of man. While Darby was not the founder of this group, he quickly emerged as its spiritual leader and dominant force.

By 1840, the Plymouth movement had grown to 800 strong and would reach more than 1200 within the next five years. Even though Darby disliked denominational labels, preferring rather the simple biblical designation “brethren,” it was perhaps inevitable that these “brethren” who met at Plymouth, should become known as the “Plymouth Brethren.”

Many other Brethren groups formed in Britain and subsequently in other parts of the world. As a result of his extensive travels, Darby himself was responsible for the spread of Brethren doctrine to other countries. He made several trips to preach and teach in Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Holland. Between 1859 and 1874, Darby made six trips to the United States and Canada where he ministered in all the major cities and in some of the smaller ones as well. Included also in Darby’s itinerary were visits to the West Indies and New Zealand.

Wherever Darby went, he never tired of expounding his views on the doctrine of the church and future things. He was convinced both that the organized church was in a state of ruin and that Christ’s return to rapture the saints and establish the millennial kingdom was imminent. While Darby’s call for a radical response to the apostate condition of the church was met with relative indifference, his teachings on eschatological themes were heartily embraced and provided much of the substance for the Bible conference movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But more than any one doctrine, it was Darby and the Brethren’s fundamental orthodoxy that appealed to Bible believing Christians everywhere.


Any portraiture of Darby the man must be painted in sharp black and white tones, never in shades of gray. He was a man of incredible intensity. First and foremost, he was intensely committed to the gospel of Jesus Christ. It was his only love and all-consuming passion. He cared for little that this world had to offer. Though meticulous in personal cleanliness, for example, Darby wore only simple clothing and those to the point of shabbiness. It is said that on one occasion while he slept, some kindly friends seized the opportunity to substitute new clothing for old. Upon waking, Darby donned the new apparel without remark or even apparent notice.

Darby was kind and humble in nature and his compassion and generosity towards the poor was without bounds. He observed that “Christ preferred the poor; ever since I have been converted so have I. Let those who like society better have it. If I ever get into it . . . I return sick at heart. I go to the poor; I find the same evil nature as in the rich, but I find this difference: the rich, and those who keep their comforts and their society, judge and measure how much of Christ they can take and keep without committing themselves; the poor, how much of Christ they can have to comfort them in their sorrows. That, unworthy as I am, is where I am at home and happy.” Darby in no way felt intellectually ill-equipped for cultivated society, it was just that given the choice, he rejected it all in preference for the cross.4

Kindly in disposition and humble in spirit though Darby was, his absolute devotion to the Word of God and demand for unflinching fidelity to its truth, as he understood it, made him ready prey for controversy. His limitless patience with the honest ignorance of the poor and unlearned was legendary. But so was his wrath against those among the well educated who played fast and loose with the truth of the gospel of Christ.

A full twenty-five years after one “heterodox teacher” had felt the brunt of Darby’s indignation, he was to write, “J.N.D. writes with a pen in one hand and a thunderbolt in the other.” But as Darby’s biographer, W. G. Turner points out, “it was only fundamental error which roused his deepest grief and indignation, his patience with honest blunderers being proverbial.”5

If ever the epithet, “fighting Fundamentalist” applied to anyone, it applied to J. N. Darby. At the same time, it is true that Darby derived no pleasure from controversy and often expressed his love for the object of his more potent polemics. But in his view, faced with a choice between peace on the one hand and truth on the other, there could be no alternative but to defend the truth.

Wherever Darby went, whether peasant’s home or hallowed halls of Oxford, his nobleness of character, keenness of mind, dedication to Christ, and commanding presence made him the focus of attention. The great Bible teacher and preacher, G. Campbell Morgan recounts as one of the “cherished recollections” of his boyhood his encounter with Darby who had come to visit his father. “He vividly recalls the almost reverential awe that lay upon him in the presence of that truly great man, and how the awe gave place and the reverence remained, when the visitor spoke kindly to him about his studies.”6


Darby is called by many the father of modern dispensational theology, a theology made popular first by the Scofield Reference Bible7and more recently by the Ryrie Study Bible. It is a theology that has gained wide influence through the publications and educational efforts of institutions like Dallas Theological Seminary and Moody Bible Institute. Yet while Darby is the center of almost every controversy over the origin of this theological system, his works are little known and seldom read. This is true among the critics and champions of dispensational theology alike. This neglect is unfortunate, for Darby is credited with much of the theological content of the Fundamentalist movement. There is little doubt too, that Darby had a tremendous part in the systematization and promotion of dispensational theology.

Today, however, Darby’s theological distinctives have virtually been reduced to his doctrine of the church in ruins, the premillennial return of Christ–with special emphasis upon Israel and the church’s role in that kingdom age–and the rapture of the church. As important as these doctrines are in Darby’s theology, they were but an outgrowth of other doctrines which must be considered the bedrock of his and the Brethren’s teaching. It is the bedrock upon which orthodox Christianity has stood since Pentecost and upon which Fundamentalists made their stand shortly after the turn of the century.

Inspiration and Infallibility of Scripture

Darby was unswerving in his belief that the Bible was the inspired, infallible Word of God, absolutely authoritative8 and faithfully transmitted from the original autographs.9 If the world itself were to disappear and be annihilated, asserts Darby, “and the word of God alone remained as an invisible thread over the abyss, my soul would trust in it. After deep exercise of soul I was brought by grace to feel I could entirely. I never found it fail me since. I have often failed; but I never found it failed me.”

Once questioned as to whether he might not allow that some parts of the New Testament may have had only temporary significance, Darby retorted, “‘No! every word, depend upon it, is from the Spirit and is for eternal service!'” Darby felt compelled to affirm his fidelity to the Word of God because “In these days especially . . . the authority of His written word is called in question on every side . . . “10

Deity and Virgin Birth of Christ

On the deity of Christ, Darby is no less compromising than he is on the place of Scripture in the believer’s life. “The great truth of the divinity of Jesus, that He is God,” says Darby, “is written all through scripture with a sunbeam, but written to faith. I cannot hesitate in seeing the Son, the Jehovah of the Old Testament, the First and the Last, Alpha and Omega, and thus it shines all through. But He fills all things, and His manhood, true, proper manhood, as true, proper Godhead, is as precious to me, and makes me know God, and so indeed only as the other, He is ‘the true God and eternal life.'”11 If Christ is not God, concludes Darby, then “I do not know Him, have not met Him, nor know what He is.”12 As one of the truths connected with the person and work of Christ, Darby cites the “miraculous birth of the Saviour, who was absolutely without sin . . .”13

Substitutionary Atonement

Just as the doctrine of the deity of Christ is written all through the Bible, Darby maintains that the propitiation secured by the sacrificial death of Christ “is a doctrine interwoven with all Scripture, forms one of the bases of Christianity, is the sole ground of remission–and there is none without shedding blood–and that by which Christ has made peace; Col. 1:20.”14

Darby is convinced that without the atoning work of Christ, man must bear the guilt of his sin, and remain at a distance from God without knowledge of Him or of His love. But thankfully that is not the case, for as Darby points out, “There is death in substitution–He ‘bore our sins in his own body on the tree’–‘died for our sins according to the scriptures’ . . .”15

Resurrection of Christ

For Darby, “the Person of Christ regarded as risen,” is the pivot around which “all the truths found in the word revolve.”16 “Many have, perhaps, been able, in looking at the Church’s hope in Christ,” says Darby, “to see the importance of the doctrine of the resurrection. But the more we search the Scriptures, the more we perceive, in this doctrine, the fundamental truth of the gospel–that truth which gives to redemption its character, and to all other truths their real power.” It is the victory of Christ over death which gives the certainty of salvation.17 It is the resurrection, asserts Darby, which “leaves behind, in the tomb, all that could condemn us, and ushers the Lord into that new world of which he is the perfection, the Head, and the glory.”18 Consequently, this doctrine characterized apostolic preaching.19

Return of Christ

Darby believed that it was essential that the church have a right hope. That hope he understood to be the second coming of Christ. At his coming, Darby maintained, Christ would take the saints to glory with Him, to become the bride, the wife of the Lamb.20

Darby insists that “Nothing is more prominently brought forward in the New Testament than the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.” He points out that it was the promise of Christ’s return which was first offered to the sorrowing disciples as they witnessed the ascension of their Lord as recorded in Acts 1:11. Furthermore, says Darby, “It was not at all a strange thing–immediately after conversion to the living God–‘to wait for his Son from heaven, even Jesus, who delivered us from the wrath to come.'”21

In light of the foregoing, John F. Walvoord, president emeritus of Dallas Theological Seminary, is certainly correct in saying that “Much of the Truth promulgated by fundamental Christians to-day had its rebirth in the movement known as the ‘Plymouth Brethren.'”22

Darby’s Influence

It should be evident from the foregoing that there is a distinct connection between the doctrines of the Brethren and the Fundamentalists who rose to challenge modernism shortly before and especially after the turn of the century. Well before publication of The Fundamentals: A Testimony of Truth in 1909, the Brethren were proclaiming the same basic truths of Scripture and staunchly defending them against all comers. The very character of Brethren fellowship and beliefs is such that to entertain liberal doctrines would destroy the movement altogether.

Many of the greatest Fundamentalist leaders of the past have openly acknowledged their indebtedness to the teachings and ministry of Darby and the Brethren. After securing the writings of C. H. Mackintosh, the man most responsible for popularizing Darby’s works, D. L. Moody said, “if they could not be replaced, [I] would rather part with my entire library, excepting my Bible, than with these writings. They have been to me a very key to the Scriptures.”23

  1. C. Gaebelein, contributor to The Fundamentals and one of the most potent influences on the life and doctrine of C. I. Scofield, says of Darby and other Brethren writers, “I found in his writings, in the works of William Kelly, Mcintosh [Mackintosh], F. W. Grant, Bellett, and others the soul food I needed. I esteem these men next to the Apostles in their sound and spiritual teachings.” In the same breath Gaebelein speaks of four saints named John who will be present at that great celestial meeting when Christ returns–John Calvin, John Knox, John Wesley, and John Darby.24

William Kelly, Darby’s closest friend and greatest student, never tired of admonishing others to “Read Darby!” With some fifty-three volumes to his credit–including everything from a complete translation of the Bible to a volume of verse–there is much of Darby to read.

John Nelson Darby continued to serve and proclaim his Savior both with the written and spoken word until his departure to be with Him on the 29th of April, 1882. And no matter what subject he addressed, one theme always came to the fore–Jesus Christ. Just a few days before his home-going Darby wrote in a final letter to the Brethren, “I can say, Christ has been my only object; thank God, my righteousness too . . . Hold fast to Christ.”


1 Ernest R. Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970; reprinted., Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1978), p. xix.

2 W. Blair Neatby. A History of the Plymouth Brethren (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1901), p. 16.

3 Darby as quoted in W. G. Turner, John Nelson Darby (London: C. A. Hammond, 1944), p. 17. 4 Turner, p. 77.

5 John Nelson Darby, Letters of J. N. Darby, 3 vols., reprint ed. (Sunbury, Penn.: Believers Bookshelf, 1971), 1:205. 6 Turner, p. 31.

7 John Harries, G. Campbell Morgan, The Man and His Ministry, p. 27; quoted in Turner, p. 78.

8 For a full treatment of the relationship between Darby and Scofield’s dispensational doctrines, see Larry V. Crutchfield’s The Origins of Dispensationalism: The Darby Factor (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992).

9 John Nelson Darby, Collected Writings of J. N. Darby, 34 vols., ed. by William Kelly (Sunbury, Penn.: Believers Bookshelf, n.d.), 23:13.

10 Ibid., 23:31. 11 Ibid., 1:38. 12 Darby, Letters, 1:28-29.

13 Darby, Collected Writings, 33:82. 14 Darby, Letters, 2:432.

15 Darby, Collected Writings, 33:82. 16 Darby, Letters, 3:102.

17 Ibid., 1:47. 18 Darby, Collected Writings, 3:147.

19 Darby, Letters, 1:47. 20 Darby, Collected Writings, 3:147.

21 Darby, Letters, 2:361. 22 Darby, Collected Writings, 27:306.

23 John F. Walvoord, review of An Historical Sketch of the Brethren Movement, by H. A. Ironside, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 1942, p. 378.

24 Sandeen, p. 173.

25 A. C. Gaebelein, Half a Century (New York: Our Hope Publication Office, 1930), p. 85.

26 Turner, p. 80.

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