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CHAPTER 2 – THE SETTING FOR THE TRIBULATION

2
THE SETTING FOR
THE TRIBULATION

Students study Scripture through one of two lenses: the objective lens (exegesis), or the outcome lens (eisegesis). The number of students viewing eschatology through the latter lens is shocking. To be honest with our text, integrity requires us to replace agenda driven study techniques using a non-prejudicial framework that protects us from arriving at pre-conceived conclusions. [1]

Determining the precise meaning of any Bible Book, verse, or passage requires one to understand the specific circumstances encapsulating it. In every passage you have to ask yourself who, what, when, where, and why. This is the setting. The 16th Century Bible translator Myles Coverdale put it like this (sic): “It shall greatly helpe ye to understand Scripture, if thou mark not only what is spoken or wrythen, but of whom and to whom, with what words, at what time, where, to what intent, with what circumstances, considering what goeth before and what followeth.” (The Structural Principles of the Bible, 1969, p. xiii).

Essentially, Mr. Coverdale was advocating the need for interpreting the Bible – not from one’s experience, shrewdness, or theological perspective – but solely from its divinely orchestrated setting in which each of the sixty-six Books exists and from which an impartial interpretation can spring forth when studied contextually. This setting consists of at least four factors:

  1. The person who wrote or dictated it
  2. The purpose for writing it (concern, conflict, correction, compassion, etc)
  3. The people receiving it (Israel or the Body of Christ)
  4. The period covered – past, present, or future

Setting Israel apart from the Church

“All Scripture is profitable for us, but all Scripture is not personally to us.” That means Scripture for Israel is not for the church and vice versa. Scholars teach God orchestrated this distinction between Israel and the Body of Christ as a means of rightly dividing Scripture. Dr. Scofield put it this way, [2]

“Whoever reads the Bible with any attention cannot fail to perceive that more than half of its contents relate to one nation: the Israelites. He perceives, too, that they have a distinct place in the dealings and counsels of God. Separated from the mass of mankind, they are taken into covenant with Jehovah [we’ll present and discuss], who gives them specific promises not given to any other nation. Their history alone is told in Old Testament narrative and prophecy [which incidentally continues through the crucifixion]; other nations are mentioned only as they touch the Jew [really consider this last statement because in it is the key unlocking this entire book]. It appears, also, that all the communications of Jehovah to Israel as a nation relate to the Earth [this will become a major component in the hermeneutic advanced in this treatise]. If faithful and obedient, the nation is promised earthly greatness, riches, and power [the Kingdom in Jerusalem promised to King David in perpetuity]; if unfaithful and disobedient, it is to be scattered among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other” (Deut. 28:64). Even the promise of the Messiah is a blessing to all the families of the Earth [the Messiah Israel rejected became our Saviour].” (Jew, Gentile, and the Church of God) Bold added. My comments are in [brackets].

Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth

“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). By design, God placed divisions in Scripture that when ignored leave the Bible somewhat cryptic. [3]

First, in our opening chapter we alluded to the fact that God has hidden in plain sight two programs; one for earth and Israel, and one for heaven and the Body of Christ – Prophecy and Mystery. “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1).

  • The Prophecy Program featuring the nation of Israel focusing on earth and the Davidic kingdom in Jerusalem, (Genesis through John; Hebrews through Revelation)
  • The Mystery Program for the Body of Christ – the church – dealing with heaven and our inheritance there in Christ. (Romans through Philemon [4])

Both programs have separate purposes and ordinances (Jer. 33:25); existing “since the world began” (Acts 3:21; Rom. 16:25). In the grand arrangement, all Scripture exists to either explain or enhance either the prophetic program for Israel concerning earth, or the mystery program for the Body of Christ concerning heaven. [Discussed more thoroughly later]

Second, the 2 programs extend across 3 time periods – Past, Present, Future. “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven” (Ecclesiastes 3:1) God’s two programs for His two entities can each be viewed from a triad of dispensational time periods.

  • Past – “time past” – Eph. 2:11-12) –Prophecy Program for the nation Israel (which includes her history);
  • Present – “but now” – Eph. 2:13) –Mystery Program of the Body of Christ exclusive of the nation Israel;
  • Future – “ages to come” – Eph. 2:7) –Prophecy Program to be fulfilled through the nation Israel.

Third, the 3 time periods present us with 2 Primary Gospels for the 2 Programs – Kingdom for Circumcision (Israel), and Grace for the Uncircumcision (Gentiles). If you’re ever itching for a fistfight, explain to a carnal Christian the word gospel doesn’t mean salvation. According to Strong, it means “a good message”. As such, the gospel is a good news message to certain peoples in Scripture God reached in specific dispensational periods. [5] We’ll discuss two primary gospels covering the two programs of prophecy and mystery:

  • Prophecy Program Gospel: the gospel of the kingdom (Matt. 4:23; 9:35) – is good news to the Jews which Christ preached “in time past” connecting Israel to the Abrahamic Covenant and the circumcision (Gen. 17; Gal. 2:7) and Davidic Covenant (earthly Kingdom from David’s seed (2 Sam. 7:8-16). [6] Bear in mind the church must be removed at the rapture allowing for Jewish tribulation evangelists in the “ages to come” to once again preach this gospel of the kingdom message heralding the Lord’s return to inaugurate His Davidic Kingdom in Jerusalem (Matt. 24:14). [Old Covenant, Dispensation of the Law] [7]
  • Mystery Program Gospel: the gospel of the grace of God (Acts 20:24) – is good news for Jews and Gentiles who come to Christ by faith and are saved, justified, sanctified, glorified, and spiritually baptized into the Body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:13) where we are seated in heavenly places (Eph. 2:6) and sealed forever (Eph. 1:13-14) apart from anything other than faith in Christ’s shed blood which permanently removes our sin from us. By Paul’s own words this was a gospel unique for the uncircumcision (Gal. 2:7), never before preached or taught: “But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ” (Galatians 1:11-12). William MacDonald observes that this “is the thrilling message of God’s undeserved favor to guilty, ungodly sinners who deserve nothing but everlasting hell. It tells how the Son of God’s love came from heaven’s highest glory to suffer, bleed, and die on Calvary in order that those who believe on Him might receive forgiveness of sins and everlasting life.” (Believer’s Bible Commentary, 1995) This is the only gospel of salvation (Eph. 1:13; see 1 Cor. 15:1-4; Gal. 1:6) for this dispensation. [No Covenant, Dispensation of Grace] [8]

Dispensational Time Triad Chart

PROPHECY
for Israel, a Nation
Old Covenant[Kingdom presented and rejected]Which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began

(Acts 3:21; see Luke 1:70)

MYSTERY
of the Church, a Body
New Covenant<- [Began at the death of Christ] ->… according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began

(Rom. 16:25; see Eph. 3:1-9)

PROPHECY
for Israel, a Nation
Old Covenant (continues)[to be ratified at the Revelation]For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are writtenmay be fulfilled

(Luke 21:22)

“Time past”

(Eph. 2:11-12)

Genesis-John

Profitable for us

“But now”

(Eph. 2:13)

Romans-Philemon

Personally to us

“Ages to come”

(Eph. 2:7)

Hebrews-Revelation

Profitable for us

in Adam

earthly kingdom

Christ prophesied as Messiah

Moses/Prophets

Dispensation of the Law

Gospel of circumcision

(Gal. 2:7)

Gospel of the kingdom

(Matt. 4:23; 9:35)

 

Revelation (Zech. 14:3-4)

in Christ

heavenly inheritance

Christ is Head of Body

Apostle Paul

Dispensation of Grace

Gospel of uncircumcision

(Gal. 2:7)

Gospel of the grace of God

(Acts 20:24; see 1 Cor. 15:1-4)

 

Rapture (1 Thess. 4:13-18)

in Adam

earthly kingdom

Christ becomes the Messiah

Moses/Prophets

Dispensation of the Law

Gospel of circumcision

(Gal. 2:7)

Gospel of the kingdom

(Matt. 24:14)

 

Revelation (Rev. 19:11)

 

 

 

 

 

Blind, asleep, lost

(Rom. 11:7,8,25)

 

For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery … that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in

(Romans 11:25)

 

Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth (Revelation 3:10)

 

 

 

 

 

Aware, awake, saved

(Dan. Rom. 11:25-26)

 

Foretold

Daniel’s 70 Weeks – Dan. 9:24-27 Jacob’s trouble/Day of

trouble/Day of the Lord

Coming of the Messiah

Davidic Covenant/New Covenant

Resurrection (John 5:28-29)

Ages to come
 

Fulfilled
Matt. 24; Rev. 6-19 Tribulation/Great Tribulation/Hour of temptation

Revelation of Christ

Millennial Kingdom

Resurrection (Rev. 19-20)

 

Before we discuss the effect of Israel’s Prophecy Program on the ministry of Christ, let’s pause to consider that its focus is bi-directional: time past and ages to come. The emphasis of prophecy is primarily the elect nation of Israel (Isa. 45:4) and the glorious appearance (Revelation) of the Messiah on earth  to establish Israel’s kingdom (Dan. 2:44) under a King from the lineage of David in the city of Jerusalem (Isa. 24:23; Mic. 4:7) in fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant (1 Sam. 7:16; see Dan. 2:44) following the tribulation or time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 9:24-27; Matt. 24-25; Rev. 19-20). Prophecy designated for Israel focuses on earth, the tribulation, and the kingdom and by design DOES NOT include the Body of Christ, church!

Christ’s Ministry under the Old Covenant

I open this section with a reminder of how important it is to view Scripture from the objective lens (exegesis) rather than the outcome lens (eisegesis). One of the main ingredients facilitating this is the setting. It must never be altered to achieve a desired result. I’m sad to report that preachers have for years – me included – pounded out sermons demanding their church members conform to the teachings in the Sermon on the Mount without considering one extremely important element: its testamental setting.

When the Bible was written conventional wisdom convinced us that the Old Testament is for Israel – which is true. However, they also told us it ended with Malachi, which is NOT true. The fact is, the New Testament didn’t begin until the death of Christ the Testator over thirty-three years later (Matt. 27; see Hebrews 9:16-17). [9] Now some will contend this is inconsequential nonsense – and for them it probably is. However, for the rest of us committed to rightly dividing the word of truth, it means this: Christ’s teachings up through the crucifixion (Matt. 3-27) are in reality a furtherance of the Old Covenant [10] “time past” narrative that in reality extends through the Gospel of John.

Regardless of what we’ve all been taught, Jesus’ primary ministry was to the Jews- aka the circumcision – in an Old Testament setting emphasizing the Kingdom based in prophecy and detailed in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Paul confirmed this: “Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision[11] for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers” (Romans 15:8-itallics added). “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law” (Galatians 4:4). According to prophecy Jesus’ mission was to “fulfill all righteousness” (Matt. 3:15) and ratify Covenants made with Israel (see His summation in Luke 24:44). As part of this He offered the Davidic Covenant Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:16) to “the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt 15:24) because “salvation (was) of the Jews” (John 4:22) awaiting the Kingdom,

“That we [Israel] should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us; To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; The oath which he sware to our [Jews]  father Abraham” (Luke 1:71-73 – bracketed comments added). It begins to fit together when you add in the fact that the sign in the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 17:10) is circumcision. Israel was unequivocally the focus of the Lord Jesus’ earthly ministry provable by His mission and messages Matthew recorded:

  • 4: Jesusbegan by preaching the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 5-7: Jesustaught the principles of the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 6:10: Jesusprayed “thy kingdom come . . .  in earth” in the presence of the Jews
  • 13: Jesusgave parables of the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 21-23; 26-27: Jesus presented the Jewish Kingdom to Jews
  • 24-25: Jesusmade a promise [12]He would return to establish the Jewish Kingdom to Jews. As a side note, in Matthew 24:29 the Lord predicted He would return to set up the Kingdom immediately after the time of tribulation. When studied in context, Christ gave the Olivet Discourse to describe the holocaust in Jerusalem prior to His return. Even so, this single verse continues to be the premier “gotcha” moment used by anti-PreTrib proponents who ignore setting to advance their argument. 

Israel in time past

“God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, [13] Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds” (Hebrews 1:1-2; see Luke 24:27, 44). The Book of Hebrews is written to and for Jews as part of the prophecy program. [14] As previously stated, in God’s grand plan, Israel exists from prophecy (time past) focusing on the earthly Kingdom and coming King (ages to come). All of it according to Covenants God made with His elect Israel. The Body of Christ operates in the “but now” epoch as a temporary mystery Israel’s blindness facilitated. Christ – King of the Jews – ministered under the Old Covenant. By His own lips, He came to “the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt. 10:6; 15:24) preaching the gospel of the kingdom to them (Matt. 4:23; 10:7). This ministry lasted over three years and targeted Israel accompanied by miracles, wonders and signs (Acts 2:22), in an effort to convince Jews that Jesus was the Messiah[15] and the Davidic Covenant Kingdom was at hand. In the end, Israel rejected the Kingdom and crucified the King (Matt. 21-23; 27) blinding Israel and making way for the mystery Body hidden from sight all this time (Rom. 16:25).

If Satan had his way, all future hope for ratifying the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7:16) would have ended at the cross and the disciples would have admitted defeat and wandered off never to be heard from again. That’s not what happened because these Jewish disciples knew,

  • The Kingdombelonged to Israel by Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7:16) and must be inaugurated
  • The Lord Jesuswas the prophesied Messiah [16] for the Kingdom
  • The Kingdomwas offered, rejected, and the King was murdered, but rose from the dead
  • The crucifixion didn’t annul the Kingdom promise proffered in the Covenant
  • The King promised to return following the great tribulation to establish the Kingdom[17] in Jerusalem, Israel (Matt. 24:29; see Zech. 14:1-4; Rev. 19:11).
Old Covenant (Pre Crucifixion)

Temporary blood of goats and calves (Heb. 10:4)

“Time past”

His Messiahship

King of the Jews

Jesus Christ was by birthright King of the Jews; God with us (Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; Matt. 1:18-252:2; 27:11, 37).
His Messenger

Repent, the King is here

John the Baptist preached to Jews, “Repent ye, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand” (Matt. 3:2).
His Motive

Fulfillment of prophecy

To fulfill OT Scripture (Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7; 52-53; etc) as God “spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began” (Luke 1:70 – study Luke 1:68-80 carefully).
His Message

Repent, the Kingdom is here+

“Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matt. 4:17; see 2 Sam. 7:16). (Confirmed with signs and all preaching and teaching thru the crucifixion)
His Ministry

Lost sheep of Israel

To the lost sheep of Israel (Matt. 10:6; 15:24; 23:37).
His Mission

The Kingdom

For the “restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began (Act 3:21). [18]
New Covenant (Post Crucifixion)

Eternal redemption by His own blood (Heb. 9:12)

 

“For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth” (Hebrews 9:16-17)

Peter the Leader of the Jewish Ekklesia (church)

For over three years, Christ’s faithful disciples listened to His preaching and believed He indeed was the Messiah and the Kingdom of Heaven was at hand (Matt. 4:17). Moreover, from the beginning to the end, these men were committed to seeing it established according to the national prophetic promises. In the final weeks leading to His return to Heaven, four of Christ’s closest confidants (Peter, James, John, and Andrew) privately asked about the timing of His return to set up the kingdom in Israel (Mark 13:3-4; Matt. 24:3). [19] The Lord responded that He would return after an unprecedented time of tribulation (Matthew 24:29-30) first prophesied by Moses (Deut. 4:30) with signs heralding it (Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 21).

Take note that although the Lord and the Kingdom had been rejected out of hand by Jewish authorities, the resurrection kept it very much alive. After the crucifixion (Matt. 27-28; Acts 1), – on the fortieth and final day of His post resurrection ministry just prior to His ascension – “[the disciples] were come together, [and] asked of him (once again), saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel” (Act 1:6)? Without setting any dates, Jesus instructed them to stay in the Jerusalem area awaiting the promise of Holy Ghost power from the Father (Acts 1:4-8). They did.

Some 10 days after the Lord’s ascension to Heaven, the Holy Spirit fell on 120 in the upper room during prayer. Filled with the Spirit Jesus promised to send (Acts 2; see John 14:16-18; 15:26) Peter preached a soul-stirring message highlighting the Messiah in Israel’s prophetic history aimed directly at the Jews (Acts 2:14, 22, 29, etc). Three-thousand came to Christ (Acts 2:41), were baptized, and formed the Jewish ekklesia (assembly, church). Bear in mind, this was NOT the ekklesia Body of Christ where Paul is the Apostle (Gal. 2:7-8). (see Excursus on 2 Churches in Appendix [i] for more discussion). If Bible students would undertake an unbiased tour through the Book of Acts, it will convince them that this ekklesia was Jewish and transitional disappearing after Peter [20], which ultimately led to Paul and the revelation of the mystery (Rev. 16:25; see Gal. 1:12) that will one day disappear in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51).

Transition to the Jewish church

With the formation of the Jewish ekklesia [21], came a conversion from the religious rigors of Judaism.[22] There were no church buildings and no established dogma so during the transition, Peter and the others continued to attend Temple prayer rituals (Acts 3:1). [23] On one of those occasions, a lame beggar was healed sparking controversy that allowed Peter to preach Christ again. He wisely appealed to Israel’s history quoting the Jewish prophets wherein he concluded with another plea for the nation to repent, so the kingdom could begin,

“And now, brethren [Jews], I wot that through ignorance ye did it [crucified Christ], as did also your rulers. But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth of all his prophets [Israel exists from prophecy], that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled. Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord [the Covenanted Kingdom]; And he shall send Jesus Christ [Christ would have come back then], which before was preached unto you [they had prophecy telling them of Christ’s coming]: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things [the Kingdom], which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began [prophecy for Israel and the mystery of the Body of Christ have both existed since the world began- Rom. 16:25]. For Moses truly said unto the fathers [Jewish], A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people. Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days” (Acts 3:17-24 my emphasis and comments in [brackets] added).

According to the context of Peter’s discourse, if Israel had repented, the Lord would have returned to inaugurate the Kingdom. Notwithstanding, they rejected it again and a spiritual blindness further settled over them like a heavy wet blanket. The rejected plea and ultimate murder of Stephen (Acts 7) was the final straw sending Israel into the blind stupor we find them in at this hour (Rom. 9-11).

Moving from the Right Division of the Word, we will now inspect some . . .

Things that are Different

Someone wisely noted: “things that are different are not the same.” Scripture reveals this to us in several areas in God’s Word. For instance, while Peter and Paul preached the same Christ, the gospel they each preached was different. Peter preached the gospel of circumcision to Israel, while Paul preached the gospel of uncircumcision to the Gentiles (Gal. 2:7). Peter’s Pentecost message  to the Israelites included prophecies of the return of Christ and the restitution of all things spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began (see Acts 3:17-21). Paul however wrote to the Gentiles about the revelation of the Mystery, which was kept secret since the world began (Romans 16:25; see Gal. 1:12). This section proves things that are different are not the same beginning with prophecy and mystery.

Prophecy and Mystery are Different

As we introduced earlier in this treatise, God’s economy features two programs that have existed since the world began. The Prophecy Program (time past, and ages to come– Eph. 2:11-12, 7) for Israel, and the Mystery Program (but now– Eph. 2:13) for the Body of Christ. Understand God is NOT the author of confusion (1 Cor. 14:33). Therefore, only one program operates at any given time. The current program is the mystery of the Body of Christ, aka the church.

The Prophecy Program: “Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began” (Acts 3:21; see Luke 1:70). This program concerns God’s purpose for the earth and Christ’s kingdom [24] in Israel. It began through prophecy in time past, and it will end by fulfilling all prophecy in the ages to come during the tribulation – as Moses prophesied (Deut. 4:30) – and on through the Millennial Kingdom. The goal of prophecy is the glorious appearance (Revelation [25]) of the Messiah on earth[26] to establish Israel’s kingdom (Dan. 2:44) under a King from the lineage of David in the city of Jerusalem (Isa. 24:23; Mic. 4:7) in fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant (1 Sam. 7:16) following the tribulation or time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7; Dan. 9:24-27; Matt. 24-25; Rev. 19-20). Keep in mind this kingdom has been in the works “from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 25:34).

IMPORTANT NOTE: Daniel received a 490-year prophecy for Israel, “thy people” (Dan. 9:15-16, 19, 24; 10:14; etc). [27] This 70 week prophecy clock stopped about two thousand years ago at Daniel’s seventieth week (study carefully Dan. 9:24-27). It will resume when “the fullness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25) at the conclusion of the mystery program with the disappearance of the mystery Body (1 Cor. 15:51; see also John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18; Rev. 3:10).

The Mystery Program:The revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began” (Romans 16:25; see Gal. 1:12; Ephesians 2:4-10, 3:1-4). The Mystery is that body of truth revealed to and proclaimed by the Apostle Paul  alone (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 1:9-10; 3:1-11) concerning Heaven and the exaltation of the Body of Christ together in Heaven with Christ (Eph. 2:4-10, 3: 1-4; also read carefully Col. 3:1-6).[28] The student who understands the distinction between prophecy in “time past” and “ages to come” for Israel, and the “but now” mystery of the church, is equipped to avoid conflating Israel’s expectation of a coming Revelation of a King and kingdom – with His parenthetical plan for the church Body that appeared as a mystery (Rom. 16:25) and disappears in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51), known as the Rapture [29] (1 Thess. 4:13-17) when “the fullness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25).

Chart: Prophecy Program vs. Mystery Program

Prophecy Program

“Time past” – “Ages to come”

Mystery Program

“But now”

“Time past” – “Ages to come” (Eph. 2:11-12,7)

Earth and its ordinances

“But now” (Eph. 2:13)

Heaven and its ordinances

Since the world began (Acts 3:21) Since the world began (Rom. 16:25)
Focus on Israel Focus on the Body of Christ
Prophets of Israel Apostle to the Gentiles (Paul)
Gospel of the Kingdom Gospel of Grace
Concerns a kingdom; a political organization (Dan.2:44, Matt. 6:10). Concerns a body; a living organism
(I Cor. 12:12,27, Eph. 4:12-16).
The kingdom to be established on earth
(Jer. 23:5, Matt. 6:10).
The body given a position in heaven
(Eph. 1:3, 2:5-6, Col. 3:1-3).
Christ to be its King  (Jer.23:5, Isa. 9:6,7). Christ its living Head (Eph. 1:19-23, Col. 1:18).
The kingdom prophesied “since the world began” (Luke 1:68-70, Acts 3:21).

 

The body chosen in Christ before the world began, but “kept secret since the world began”
(Rom. 16:25, Eph. 1:4-11, 3:5-9).
Israel to be given supremacy over the nations
(Isa. 60:10-12, 61:6).
Jew and Gentile placed on the same level before God (Rom. 10:12, 11:32, Eph. 2: 16,17).
The Gentiles to be blessed through Israel’s instrumentality (Gen. 22:17,18, Zech. 8:13). The Gentiles blessed through
Israel’s obstinacy (Acts 13:44-46, Rom. 11:28-32).
The Gentiles to be blessed through Israel’s rise  (Isa. 60:1-3, Zech. 8:22,23). The Gentiles blessed through Israel’s fall 
(Acts 28:27,28, Rom. 11:11,12,15).
Prophecy mainly concerns nations as such
(Isa. 2:4, Ezek. 37:21,22).
The mystery concerns individuals (Rom. 10:12,13,  II Cor. 5:14-17).
Prophecy concerns blessings, both material and spiritual, on earth (Isa. 2:3,4, 11:1-9, etc.). The mystery concerns “all spiritual blessings in the heavenlies”  (Eph. 1:3, Col. 3:1-3).
Prophecy concerns Christ’s coming to the earth (Isa. 59:20, Zech. 14:4). The mystery explains Christ’s present absence from the earth (Eph. 1:20-23, Col. 3:1-3).
In prophecy salvation by grace through faith alone is not contemplated.

 

Salvation by grace through faith alone lies at the very heart of the mystery (Rom. 3:21-26, 4:5, Eph. 2:8,9).
The proclamation of the prophetic program committed particularly to the twelve
(Matt. 10:5-7, Acts 1:6-8, 3:19-26).
The proclamation of the mystery committed particularly to Paul (Eph. 3:1-3,8,9, Col. 1:24-27).
The prophetic program revealed through many of God’s servants (Luke 1:70, II Pet. 1:21). The mystery revealed through one man: Paul
(Gal. 1:1,11,12, 2:2,7,9, Eph. 3:2,3).
Old testament writers frequently did not understand the prophecies made known through them (Dan. 12:8-10, I Pet. 1:10-12).

 

Paul both understood and longed that others might understand the mystery revealed through him. (Eph. 1:15-23, 3:14-21, Col 1:9-10, 2:1-3).

Summary: Prophecy and mystery are different; therefore, they are not the same! 

Israel and the Church are Different

May I reiterate, the church is not the new Israel. [30] Her future is not on earth and she is not looking for – nor does she require – the punishment and purification God is going to mete out to Israel and the world during the “tribulation” (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 24:21, 29). [31] In fact, her inheritance (Eph. 1:11) has nothing to do with the earth. She is the Body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:27) spiritually seated in heavenly places in Christ (Eph. 2:6; Col. 3:1-3). Her “blessed hope” (Titus 2:13) is Christ  and His imminent return in the air (1 Thess. 4:13-18) to deliver her from the tribulation wrath [32] to come (1 Thess. 1:10; Rev. 3:10) by escorting her back to His heavenly home according to His immutable promise (John 14:2-3). [33] Dr. CI Scofield’s insight is well worth restating here: “Their history alone is told in Old Testament narrative and prophecy [which incidentally continues through the crucifixion]; other nations are mentioned only as they touch the Jew [really consider this last statement because in it is the key unlocking this entire book]. It appears, also, that all the communications of Jehovah to Israel as a nation relate to the Earth [this will become a major component in the hermeneutic advanced in this treatise].

Chart: Israel (prophecy) vs. Body of Christ (mystery)

Israel

“Time past” – “Ages to come”

Body of Christ

“But now”

“Time past” – “Ages to come” (Eph. 2:11-12,7)

Nation

“But now”

Body

Jews alone Jews and Gentiles together (saved)
Prophecy (prophets) Mystery (Paul only)
Wife of YHWH Bride of Christ
Fully known to the prophets Unknown to the prophets
The circumcision The uncircumcision
Peter is spokesman Paul is spokesman
Occupies four-fifths of the Bible Occupies one-fifth of the Bible
Born into the nation Born again into the Body
Temple in Jerusalem Our bodies are the temple
Wife of YHWH Bride of Christ
Nation with a land, covenants, and laws Body without land, covenants, and laws
Temporary indwelling of Spirit Permanent indwelling and sealing of Spirit
Focused on earth Focused on heaven
Kingdom Inheritance
Sheep and goat judgment Bema seat
Clearly seen in the tribulation Never clearly seen in the tribulation
Revelation to earth with church Rapture in the air for the church
Natural bloodline – Jacob Spiritual bloodline – Jesus

Israel is in the “time past” and “ages to come” prophecy program.

Let’s establish two factors before we proceed. Israel exists from prophecy. She is at the forefront of eighty percent of the Bible. Keeping this in mind when interpreting non-Pauline prophesies and writings will lend itself to a proper understanding. For example, when prophesy speaks of Christ’s visible return – aka the Revelation seen by the world –Israel is the subject, NOT the church. The Body of Christ appeared as a mystery (Rom. 16:25) and will disappear in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51) irrespective of when Christ returns at the Revelation to Israel (Zech. 14:3-4; Matt. 24:21, 29; Rev. 19:11-21).

Israel is the only elect nation of YHWH (Psalm 147:20). Her five Covenants, her land, and her laws exist from words spoken by prophets concerning an earthly kingdom. These have nothing whatsoever to do with the Body of Christ and neither does “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7) – aka tribulation – that will prepare her for the kingdom (Jer. 30-31).

Membership in the Jewish community comes by physical birthright. The fact that four-fifths of the Bible pertains to Israel, while only one-fifth of it deals with the church [34] underscores without question that Israel is the object of God’s word and the apple of God’s eye (Zech. 2:8). This means we must interpret the Bible through the lens of God’s purpose for Israel. Through the prophets, God gave Israel – not the church – special commissioning and at least five Covenants outlining, guiding, and guaranteeing her future.

The church is in the “but now” mystery program.

She is a redeemed spiritual Body in Christ (Rom. 12:5) as well as the Body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:27). This Body has been a mystery unknown to the prophets and therefore was not revealed in any prophecy from any of the OT prophets. It exists solely from the revelation of mystery the Lord Jesus revealed to Paul alone (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:3; see 2 Pet. 3:15-16). Membership in the church comes by spiritual birth rather than physical birth. Her focus is not an earthly kingdom, but a heavenly inheritance (Eph. 1:11, 14, 18; Col. 1:12; 3:24). In lieu of that, the church has not been consigned anywhere in Scripture to be on earth during the time of Jacob’s (Israel) trouble- aka Daniel’s 70th week, the day of the Lord [35], and the tribulation. The church lives spiritually in the heavenlies (2 Cor. 5:1-2; Eph. 1:3; 2:6; Phil. 3:20; Col. 3:1) and looks for her Redeemer (1 Thess. 1:10) who could come in the air (1 Thess. 4:16-17) at any moment to deliver her from the wrath [36] to come prior to the time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7; Rev. 3:10; 1 Thess. 1:10). Having appeared as a mystery (Rom. 16:25; Eph 3:3; Col. 1:26-27), the church will disappear in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51) thus restarting Israel’s prophetic calendar with the final week of seven years.

The distinctions between the church and Israel show up in several ways in Scripture including – as mentioned previously – in the distinctions between Paul’s ministry to the uncircumcision (Body of Christ) and Peter’s ministry to the circumcision (Israel). Dr. Noah Hutchings, one of my favorite Bible teachers, writes, “Investigating the reasons for church differences, I have concluded that they lie in the failure to understand the variance between the gospel of the Kingdom and the gospel of grace; and more specifically, the message preached by Peter and the message preached by Paul. It is my firm conviction that if all churches could agree on the first fifteen chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, there would be few church differences. Therefore, it is important for Christians to understand the difference between the ministry that Christ committed to Peter and the ministry that He committed to Paul . . . However, the greatest revelation to me concerning dispensational truths and sound doctrine was the scriptural evidence that Paul and Peter did not preach the same message. They preached the same Christ, but not the same gospel” [gospel simply means good news].  p2-3. Dr. Hutchings continues:

“Some might ask, What about the conversion of the household of Cornelius when Peter   preached to them the gospel? If you will read in Acts 10:42, Peter still preached Christ as the judge or ruler of the living dead. While this is certainly true, Peter was still preaching Christ from a Kingdom age covenant position.” p7 (Hutchings 1992).

Israel’s focus is a kingdom on earth that has been spoken by the mouth of His holy prophets since the world began (Acts 3:21); the church focuses on an inheritance in heaven and exists from the revelation of the mystery the Lord Jesus revealed to Paul kept secret since the world began (Rom. 16:25; see Gal. 1:12).

Summary: Israel and the church are different; therefore, they are not the same!

The Rapture and the Revelation are Different

The Revelation is part of the prophecy program in the “ages to come” category. It’s the deliverance of Israel following “the time of Jacob’s trouble”. It is a well-known Jewish teaching (Psa. 102:16; Isa. 66:15-18; Dan. 7:13-14; Zech. 14:3-4; etc). It originated through the prophets, centers around earth, concerns the establishment of the Davidic Covenant Kingdom in Jerusalem, and occurs at the completion of the great tribulation (Matt. 24:29) also known as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7), Daniel’s seventieth week (Daniel 9:24-27, “the day of the Lord” (Isaiah 2:12; 13:6,9; 34:8; Jeremiah 46:10, etc), a “time of trouble” (Dan. 12:1), and “the hour of temptation” (Rev. 3:10). [Continued discussion in Annotation [37]]. His purpose is completely separate from what we know to be the Rapture.

In an article entitled The Glorious Appearing of Christ, Dr. J. Dwight Pentecost wrote: “When the Son returns in glory (Rev. 1:13-16 He is fulfilling His God given role as Judge (John 5:27). He is portrayed in that role throughout the book of Revelation. Christ is the one (Rev. 5:5) who looses the series of judgments described in the breaking of the seals (Rev. 6:1-17) and the blowing of the trumpets (Rev. 8:2-9:21) . . .  Upon the Second Coming, He will assemble living Israel for judgment (Matt. 24:31; 25:1-30) and will judge living Gentiles to determine who will enter the covenanted kingdom.”

Chart: Revelation vs. Rapture

Revelation of Christ (prophecy)

“Ages to come”

Rapture by Christ (mystery)

“But now”

“Ages to come” (Eph. 2:7)

Occurs after the time of Jacob’s trouble aka Daniel’s 70th week

Dan 7:9,22; Matt 24:29-31;

Rev 19:11-21

“But now” (Eph. 2:13)

Occurs before the time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7) aka Daniel’s 70th Week (Dan 9:24-27)

Luke 21:36; Rev 3:10

A prophecy given to Israel by the Lord Jesus Matt 24:29-31; Mark 13:26 A promise given to the church by the Lord Jesus John 14:2-3; Rev 3:10
Was well known to the prophets

1 Chron 16:33; Isa 26:21; Dan 7-13-14; Zech 14:4-5

Was a mystery unknown to the prophets

1 Cor 15:51

In the day of the Lord

Isa 2:12; Jer 46:10; Ezek 30:3; Joel 2:11

In the day of Christ

2 Thess 2:1-2; 1 Cor 1:8; 5:5; Phil 1:6

Christ comes with His own

Rev 19:14

Christ comes for His own

John 14:3; 1 Thess 4:17

He comes to the earth

Zech 14:4-5; Acts 1:11

He comes in the air

1 Thess 4:17

He comes with His Bride

Rev 19:6-14

He comes to claim His Bride

1 Thess 4:16,17

Public: Every eye shall see Him
Rev 1:7; Matthew 24:30
Private: Only His own see Him
1 Thess 4:13-18
A time of mourning and wailing

Psa 114:7; Isa 26:21; Matt 24:30; Rev 1:7

A blessed hope Titus 2:13
Unsaved have experienced wrath

Rev 6:12-17; see Nahum 1:2

Saved are delivered from wrath

1 Thess 1:10; 5:9; Rev 3:10

Signs precede the Second Coming

Matt 24; Mark 11; Luke 21

No signs precede the Rapture

1 Thessalonians 5:1-3

Focus: Israel and Kingdom

Matt 24

Focus: Lord and Church

1 Thess 4:13-18

Followed by sheep and goat judgment

Matt 25:31-46

Followed by judgment seat of Christ
Rom 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10
Millennial Kingdom begins

Rev 20:1-7

Daniel’s 70 week begins sometime after

2 Thess 1:6-9

The Rapture is part of the mystery program. It delivers the Body of Christ from “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; Luke 21:36; Rev. 3:10). It was taught by Paul, was unknown to the prophets, centers around heaven, and is a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51) that removes the mystery Body of Christ (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:1-11) at the day of Christ, prior to Daniel’s seventieth week, and the day of the Lord. [38]

  • Mystery appearance of the Body of Christ: “Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of JesusChrist, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began” (Rom 16:25; see Gal. 1:12)
  • Mystery disappearance of the Body of Christ: “Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed” (1Co 15:51-52). [SIDENOTE: I find the allusion to the eye quite interesting in that Israel is currently blind. Could this twinkling be in the Jewish eye? Time will tell].

Once the mystery Body of Christ is removed – which will occur when “the fullness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom. 11:25) – the prophecy clock and final preparations for the Kingdom can once again get underway. [39]

The Revelation was well known by the prophets, is for Israel, and occurs after “the time of Jacob’s trouble”. The Rapture is the final mystery in the mission of the mystery Body (Eph. 3:1-11), and it occurs prior to “the time of Jacob’s trouble”.

Summary: The Rapture and the Revelation (see Appendix [ii]) are different; therefore, they are not the same!

The Day of the Lord and the Day of Christ are Different

The Day of the Lord is part of the prophecy program in the “ages to come”. It’s a Jewish phrase that originated from the prophets. This exact rendering is never used to implicate the Body of Christ, aka the church. In fact, it is referred to specifically by nine of the Jewish OT prophets: Isaiah 2:12; 13:6,9; 34:8; Jeremiah 46:10; Ezekiel 13:5; 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1,11,31; 3:14; Amos 5:18,20; Obadiah 1:15; Zephaniah 1:7,8,14,18; 2:2,3; Zechariah 14:1; Malachi 4:5). It is also called the time of Jacob’s trouble by Jeremiah (30:7); and as a time of trouble by Daniel (12:1). Moses, the Lord Jesus, and John labeled this period the (great) tribulation (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 24:21; Rev. 7:14). When studied in context one finds the entire purpose of the time of Jacob’s (Israel) trouble is a time when God will punish Israel and the world for sin and rejecting Christ while preparing Israel for the coming Davidic Covenant Millennial Kingdom (2 Sam. 7:16; Isa. 14; etc). The day of the Lord is judgment against the proud (Isa. 2:12); destruction (Isa. 13:6; Joel 1:15); God’s fierce anger (Isa. 13:9;  Zeph. 2:2); God’s vengeance for Zion (Isa. 34:8); God’s vengeance against His adversaries (Jer. 46:10; Obad. 1:15); terror (Lam. 2:22); Israel’s battle (Ezek. 13:5); the time of the heathen (Ezek. 30:3); a time of trembling (Joel 2:1); great and very terrible (Joel 2:11); dark and bloody moon (Joel 2:31; Acts 2:20); multitudes in the valley of decision (Joel 3:14); woe (Amos 5:18); darkness (Amos 5:20); bitter crying (Zeph. 1:14); and wrath (Zeph. 1:18). The day of the Lord is an extended period dispensationalists teach will commence with the signing of the seven year covenant (Dan. 9:27) and culminate with a great noise where the elements shall melt, and the earth and it’s works shall be burned up (2 Pet. 3:10).

The Day of Christ is part of the mystery program in the “but now” period. It’s a Christian phrase Paul was given in the revelation of the mystery for the church (see Gal. 1:12). As a Hebrew scholar, Paul was well aware of the prophetic phrase the day of the Lord and knew it described the time of Jacob’s (Israel’s) trouble. The fact that he opted to use the day of Christ, day of our Lord Jesus Christ, day of the Lord Jesus, and day of Jesus Christ rather than the day of the Lord signifies their distinctions. Dispensational scholar Arno Gaebelein explains:

“There is an important difference between the day of Christ and the day of the Lord. The day of Christ concerns the Church . . The day of the Lord concerns the earth — Israel and the nations. The day of Christ begins when He takes His saints in glory and they are with Him. The day of the Lord will bring . . . the visible manifestation of the Lord from heaven. The day of Christ comes first and the day of the Lord follows [and continues] at least seven years later. The day of the Lord does not concern the saints at all; it falls on the world. Before the day of the Lord can come, His saints have to be gathered together unto Him. The promise of 1Th_4:16-18 needs first to be fulfilled. (Paul)  uses this hope of being gathered to Christ, when He comes for His saints, as a motive why they should not listen to those who said the day of [Christ] is present. He reminds them of the fact that their gathering unto Him had not yet taken place. How, then, could the day of the Lord be present?” (The Annotated Bible- Arno Gaebelein)

Here are the 7 passages in the chronological order Paul wrote them. Please notice if you will that this is a definite terminal period that includes rewards and rejoicing and affects Christians only.

  • 2 Thessalonians 2:1-2 (54 AD): Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord JesusChrist, and by our gathering together unto him,  (2)  That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Anti-PreTrib writers argue against imminency by claiming Paul taught the antichrist had to appear prior to the Rapture. This, of course, would place Christians in the time of Jacob’s trouble causing them to look for antichrist rather than Jesus Christ. The context of Paul’s words disproves this notion. A forged letter from Paul arrived in Thessalonica claiming the day of Christ (which includes the Rapture and the day of the Lord-or tribulation) was at hand or had begun. If Paul had taught them they were going through the time of Jacob’s trouble, why were they scared since Jesus would after all be returning within seven years? Moreover, why didn’t Paul encourage them to stock pile food, weapons, and other necessities since this would have been the perfect opportunity? The fact is, Paul clearly taught them two comings of Christ: the Rapture where the Lord comes for His church to deliver them from the time of Jacob’s (Israel’s) trouble aka day of the Lord which is to come (1 Thess. 1:10; 4:13-18; 5:9, 23) and the Revelation where Christ returns with His church after the tribulation: 1 Thess. 2:19; 3:13; see Matt. 24:29; Rev. 19:11-21].

Here are the remaining verses describing this event. No mention of judgment or any of the woes described by the nine prophets that warned Israel about the day of the Lord:

  • 1 Corinthians 1:8 (59 AD): Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  • 1 Corinthians 5:5 (59 AD): To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
  • 2 Corinthians 1:14 (60 AD): As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.
  • Philippians 1:6 (64 AD): Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ.
  • Philippians 1:10 (64 AD): That ye may approve things that are excellent; that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ.
  • Philippians 2:16 (64 AD): Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain.

Summary: The day of the Lord and the day of Christ are different; therefore they are not the same!

Summary Chart

ISRAEL

Past Prophecy

“time past” Eph 2:11-12

(CHURCH/BODY OF CHRIST)

Present Mystery

“but now” Eph 2:13

ISRAEL

Future Prophecy

Eph 2:7

Earthly Nation Heavenly Body Earthly Nation
Prophecy Program

(Acts 3:21)

Mystery Program

(Rom. 16:25)

Prophecy Program

(Luke 21:22)

Profitable for us Personally to us Profitable for us
1st Coming to earth Rapture in the air Revelation (2nd Coming) to earth
Daniel’s 69 Weeks ————————————————————————————-  Daniel’s 70th Week

Hear me please. If Bible students will simply mark the difference between prophecy for Israel and the mystery of the church, the confusion surrounding the tribulation – “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7) – quickly dissolves. Sadly, prophecy teachers are often so emotionally invested in anti-PreTrib vitriol [40], they’re afraid to risk acknowledging anything even hinting they’re wrong.

[1] Most doctrinal disagreements stem from men conflating God’s prophetic program for Israel and her earthly kingdom, with His mystery program for the Body of Christ and our heavenly inheritance.

[2] We have these Old Scofield Bibles (KJV, Bonded Leather) available for a gift to our ministry of $34. Stamps are welcome.

[3] “It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of kings is to search out a matter. The heaven for height, and the earth for depth . . .” (Proverbs 25:2-3).

[4] While every Book in the Bible is inspired and profitable for us, Paul is the only Apostle to the Gentiles identified in the Bible (Rom. 11:13; 1 Tim. 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11). Therefore, the Pauline Epistles form the body of truth that is personally to us. Study them often. Develop a plan to read through them several times per year with your annual through the Bible regimen.

[5] The Old Scofield Bible defines a dispensation   as “a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God.” In simplest terms, dispensationalism teaches us that God dispenses his overarching program differently to the people living in different ages. As an example, God dealt with Adam differently than He did Abraham, who was dealt with differently than Moses, who was dealt with differently than Paul, and so forth. While some misunderstand the reality and relevance of this, the truth is that unless you are worshiping on Saturdays and bringing sacrificial lambs with you to a temple, you are at some level a dispensationalist.

[6] God made 5 unilateral Covenants with Israel and none with the Body of Christ. Bear in mind our status: “without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise …” (Ephesians 2:12).

[7] This includes the gospel of circumcision (Gal. 2:7), which is good news for the Jews preached “in time past” linking them to the Abrahamic Covenant, the foundational contract for Israel’s relationship with God. It formed the groundwork for the promises that would be revealed in the other covenants. The Lord Jesus Christ, James, Peter (Cephas) and John were all ministers of the circumcision (Rom. 15:8; Gal. 2:7-9). [Old Covenant, Dispensation of the Law]

[8] This includes the gospel of uncircumcision (Gal. 2:7), which is is good news for Gentiles as Paul explains, “Ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ” (Ephesians 2:11-13). [No Covenant, Dispensation of Grace]

[9] For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth. (Heb 9:16-17)

[10] We’ll discuss more on the five Covenants shortly.

[11] Paul distinguished his ministry from Peter’s thusly, “But contrariwise . . . the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter” (Galatians 2:7- italics added).

[12] Anti-PreTrib zealots make a case from nothing here. Since Christ’s offer to set up the Davidic Covenant Kingdom had been rejected out of hand (Matt. 21-23) Peter, James, John, and Andrew came to the Lord Jesus privately to ask when He would inaugurate the Davidic Covenant Kingdom in Israel (Mark 13:3-4). His response forms the Olivet Discourse (Matt. 24-25) focusing on signs of the tribulation – aka time of Jacob’s trouble (Deut. 4:30; Jer. 30:7; Dan. 12:1) immediately preceding His Revelation return as King of kings to Israel.

[13] Everything was revealed to God’s prophets concerning earth, Israel, and events leading to the Davidic Kingdom (2 Kings 17:23; 21:10; 24:2; Jeremiah 25:4; Daniel 9:10; Amos 3:7; Revelation 10:7).

[14] The Book of Hebrews is a great writing, and is profitable for us, but is not personally to us. In case the name of this treatise isn’t a clear enough reference to its intended audience, the opening verse should.

[15] He was one of a kind: prophet, priest, and king;   all in all, the promised Messiah.

[16] The word Messiah (see John 1:41; 4:25) contemplates Christ as the final or greatest Prophet, the final Priest, and the final King. The Messiah is Israel’s one hope. As the Anointed or Sent One, it is said of Christ that God gave the Spirit to Him without measure (Joh_3:34). In Him, to be sure, all the fullness of the Godhead dwelleth bodily (Col_2:9). Both the priestly and the kingly aspects of Messiah continue forever, if not the prophetic. –Dr. Lewis Chafer (Systematic Theology).

[17] “All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name” (Psalms 86:9)

[18] While the sacrificial death of Christ was planned from the foundation of the world (Rev. 13:8), it was a consequence of the rejection of His kingdom.

[19] Anti-PreTrib advocates need the Olivet Discourse to be an address to the entire church if they are to make their case that the church is here during the time of Jacob’s trouble. That is at best disingenuous or worse, it is deceptive. Study context. This was a briefing to Jews concerning signs of the impending Kingdom; the Pauline Body of Christ didn’t come into existence until almost mid-way through Acts.

[20] This process begins in Chapter 9 with Paul’s conversion.

[21] This is NOT the same ekklesia Paul was the Apostle over. See Appendices: Excursus on 2 Churches

[22] The doctrinal separation was made official in the Jerusalem Council. See Acts 15.

[23] It was 3:00 p.m. when Peter and John went up together to the temple in Jerusalem. The early Jewish Christians continued to attend the temple services for some time after the church was formed. This was a period of adjustment and transition, and the break with Judaism was not made instantaneously. (Believer’s Bible Commentary, 1995) See the Appendices for the 2 churches.

[24] This kingdom has been in the works from the beginning as revealed at the sheep and goat judgment: “Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 25:34).

[25] The Revelation of Jesus Christ is the public return of the Lord to Israel with the mystery church (1 Thess. 2:19; Rev. 19:14; Jude 1:14) already there with Him (John 14:2-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18; Rev. 4:1; 19:11-21).

[26] Dan. 7:13-14; Zech. 14:1-4; compare Matt. 24:29-31; Rev. 1:7; 19:11-21.

[27] Daniel refers to Jews as “saints” 6 times in Daniel 7 in relation to the coming tribulation. Revelation is the companion Book; the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy. Therefore, when Revelation refers to saints, it likewise refers to Jews and their converts; NOT the Body of Christ which didn’t exist in Daniel’s mind.

[28] Cornelius Stam has written extensively on this. PMI also offers more literature on Prophecy and the Mystery.

[29] Here is the bone in the throat for end time’s teachers who invest their souls trying to convince their readers that the Lord Jesus wants His Bride to undergo the horrors surrounding the world’s second holocaust – the tribulation and great tribulation. In reality, the Rapture   is for the Body of Christ and occurs before “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7; see Dan. 12:1). Jacob is Israel therefore the coming tribulation – time of trouble – is for his family – Jews. The Body of Christ is here NOW but only for a measured period called the fullness of the Gentiles that followed Israel’s rejection of the Messiah and her current blindness. Paul explains how it relates to the mystery Jesus revealed to him:

“For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in” (Rom 11:25).

[30] Replacement theology is a rank heresy Jesus said originated in the synagogue of Satan (Rev. 2:9; 3:9).

[31] Also called “Jacob’s (aka Israel’s) trouble” (Jer. 30:7), “the time of trouble” (Dan. 12:1), “the hour of temptation” (Rev. 3:10) as well as a few other names.

[32] This coming wrath is described fully in Rev. 6-19).

[33] We refer to this as the Rapture of the church.

[34] Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology

[35] Isaiah 2:12; 13:6,9; 34:8; Jeremiah 46:10; Lamentations 2:22; Ezekiel 13:5; 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1,11,31; 3:14; Amos 5:18,20; Obadiah 1:15; Zephaniah 1:7,8,14,18; 2:2,3; Zechariah 14:1; Malachi 4:5

[36] God’s wrath is NEVER aimed at those in relationship with Him! Nahum 1:2 “God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies.”

[37] In order to fit the pieces together leading to restarting the prophecy clock and ultimately to the Kingdom, we need to understand Daniel’s seventy weeks, which we will study shortly. Daniel – a Jewish prophet – saw the Lord’s first presentation of the Kingdom   in a prophecy he foretold of seventy weeks of seven years (for Israel) leading to the cutting off of the Messiah (Dan. 9:24-26). With the Davidic Covenant in mind, John the Baptist and the Lord Jesus Christ began preaching Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (Matt. 3:2; 4:17). This of course was God’s offer to inaugurate the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7:16) and fulfill Daniel’s prophecy. When Jesus was officially rejected on the exact day Daniel’s seventieth week was to begin, the prophetic calendar for Israel stopped making way for a parenthetic body to be inserted into the fabric of God’s providence- a mystery that was unknown by the prophets- called the Body of Christ (aka the church). However, this left unfulfilled one seven year period the prophets and dispensational scholars refer to as the time of Jacob’s (Israel) trouble (Jer. 30:7); the day of the Lord (Isa. 2:12; 13:6, 9; 34:8; Joel 1:15, 2:1; etc); a time of trouble (Dan. 12:1); and the tribulation (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 24:21-29). Bear in mind, the tribulation is part of the day of the Lord; a Jewish phrase used by at least nine Jewish prophets that centers on earth and concerns Israel not the church (see Zech 12-14; Matthew 24; Revelation 6-19) where the focus is Jerusalem, and the abomination of desolation in the Temple Dan. 9:27; Matt. 24:15; 2 Thess. 2:4). Not surprisingly, Daniel’s seventieth week – which the Olivet Discourse outlines and the Book of Revelation reveals – will be the worst period of devastation and anti-Semitism in world history. It will be a time when a sinister figure called Antichrist and the Beast leads a carnage against the saints of God (Jews: Dan. 7:18, 21-22, 25,27; Rev. 11:18; 13:7, 10; 14:12; 16:16; 17:6; 18:24, etc). In the end, Israel- at the point of utter annihilation at Armageddon ((Joel 3:14; Zech. 14:1-3; Rev. 14:20; 16:16; 19:11-21)  – will look up to see a white horse in the sky carrying the nail scarred Messiah Jesus (Zech. 12:10) who is returning in glory to rescue them from total destruction. His feet will split open the Mount of Olives (Zech 14:4) and He will gather earth’s survivors, separating the sheep from the goats in judgment (Matt. 25:31-33), therein establishing the Covenanted Kingdom of David (2 Sam. 7:16) in Jerusalem. This visible, triumphant return to Israel- called the Revelation is an event the prophets of Israel saw (Dan. 7:13-14; Zech 14). What they didn’t see was the mystery; the church playing a parenthetic role during Israel’s blindness (Rom. 11:25). It was Paul – the converted Jewish scholar- that taught two separate comings of the Lord; one for Israel on earth which he’d learned in his Jewish studies (Dan. 7:13-14) at the feet of the brilliant Gamaliel (Acts 22:3); and one in the heavens for the church he learned from Jesus in the revelation of the mystery (Rom. 16:25; Gal. 1:12; Eph. 3:3) separated by at least seven years that could begin shortly. The former called the Revelation (aka Second Coming) happens on earth and is for Israel; it will be seen by everyone in the world (Rev. 1:7). The latter called the Rapture happens in the heavens and will be seen only by those who look for Him (1 Thess. 1:10; 4:13-18; Heb. 9:28). In divine irony, the church- which began in a mystery- will likewise disappear in a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51).

[38] Anti-PreTrib proponents claim the church needs to endure the tribulation to prove herself worthy. How can Bible teachers in good conscience subject the church to any of the earthly tribulation hell knowing Christ’s bride has been redeemed (Eph 1:7), justified (Rom 3:28), and glorified (Eph 1:20; 2:6) by faith in our Saviour’s shed blood – with no subsequent requirement to “prove herself worthy”?   They pull this sleight of hand trickery simply by redefining a couple words most who read this have never really studied- saints and elect.

[39] At some point in the future, God’s program will once again feature Israel. Anti-PreTrib rapturists have identified no starting point for this.

[40] Epithets hurled against believers in an imminent, PreTrib rapture are unkind, untoward, and unchristian. One of many reoccurring charges is that of being in a clandestine conspiracy with the devil.

Appendix [i]
Excursus on 2 Churches and the Body of Christ

“And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it” (Mat 16:18).

The book of Acts is transitional, moving from God’s prophetic program for the nation Israel with its prophesied kingdom on earth, to His mystery plan for the church body and its kingdom in Heaven. Let me be clear. Most of the theological inconsistencies you encounter from confused Christians is rooted in their crass misinterpretation of the book of Acts. In his great book Why So Many Churches, Dr. Noah Hutchings writes: “If only Christians would hear what God has spoken to them during this age, and claim that which God has given to us and let Israel have that which God has promised to them in the covenants, then all who believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour could fellowship one with another. If Christians would rightly divide the Word, then all Scriptures would fall into their rightful place.”

In Acts 1-9 the main focus is Peter, Jerusalem, and PROPHECY for ISRAEL Then in Acts 10the focus begins shifting to Gentiles, Antioch, the Apostle Paul, and the MYSTERY of the CHURCH. Overall, Acts records events from the ascension of Jesus back to Heaven, the day of Pentecost, including the birth and historical record of the first organized Jewish Church under Peter’s preaching and leadership, to Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles who alone received the revelation of the mystery for the church (see Gal. 1:12). Scofield writes: Acts is in two chief parts: In the first section (Acts 1:1 – 9:43) Peter is the prominent personage, Jerusalem is the center, and the ministry is to Jews. Already in covenant relations with Jehovah, they had sinned in rejecting Jesus as the Christ. The preaching, therefore, was directed to that point, and repentance (i.e. “a changed mind”) was demand-ed. The apparent failure of the Old Testament promises concerning the Davidic kingdom was explained by the promise that the kingdom would be set up at the return of Christ (Act_2:25-31; Act_15:14-16). This ministry to Israel fulfilled Luk_19:12-14. In the persecutions of the apostles and finally in the martyrdom of Stephen, the Jews sent after the king the message, “We will not have this man to reign over us.” In the second division (Acts 10:1 – 28:31) Paul is prominent, a new center is established at Antioch, and the ministry is chiefly to Gentiles who, as “strangers from the covenants of promise” Act_2:12), had but to “believe on the Lord Jesus Christ” to be saved. Chapters 11,12, and 15 of this section are transitional, establishing finally the distinction, doctrinally, between law and grace. Galatians should be read in this connection. (excerpted from the Old Scofield Reference Bible)

Christ Promised to build His Church

Christ revealed His plans for a special assembly gathered around His name. AC Gaebelein offers sound insights from his Annotated Bible: “I will build My church” (Matt. 16:18). Here we have the first mention of the church in the Bible. It did not exist in the OT. The church, still future when Jesus spoke these words, was formed on the Day of Pentecost and is composed of all true believers in Christ, both Jew and Gentile. A distinct society known as the body and bride of Christ, it has a unique heavenly calling and destiny. We would scarcely expect the church to be introduced in Matthew’s Gospel where Israel and the kingdom are the prominent themes. However, consequent to Israel’s rejection of Christ, a parenthetical period—the church age—follows and will continue to the Rapture. Then God will resume His dealings with Israel nationally. So it is fitting that God should introduce the church here as the next step in His dispensational program after Israel’s rejection.”

Two “Churches” Formed

“Some of God’s people will inherit an earthly Kingdom, while others are members of the Body of Christ, destined for Heaven. Knowing the difference is all important to be established in your faith. You cannot follow instructions given to people of another time whose inheritance is in another place and be successful in your service for the Lord. All scripture is given by inspiration of God. All of the Bible is for us, but it is not all about us. Peter and Paul are two different apostles of the Lord. They have two different messages called “the gospel.” Their message is addressed to two different groups of people. Those two groups of people are in two different churches.

The Greek word ekklesia literally means “a calling out” and can be used to describe either a sacred or secular gathering: church and assembly. Two separate churches are set forth in Acts:

  1. The Jewish Church which was exclusively Jewish beginning with Peterafter the Holy Spirit outpouring on Pentecost in Jerusalem (Acts 2:47)
  2. The Body of ChristChurch following Paul’s conversion and revelation of the mystery some time after (Acts 11:26; see Rom. 16:25; Gal. 11:12; Eph. 3:1-9)

The Jewish Church

The Jewish Kingdom Church was formed to call out the new Nation of Israel out of apostate Israel. The establishment of the Kingdom is yet future. It has not yet happened. The reason you do not see the Lord Jesus Christ ruling and reigning on the throne of David as the King in the Kingdom is because God had a secret. The secret is about another group of people called the Body of Christ. The Body and the Kingdom are two different things. God’s prophetic program for a “Kingdom of Heaven upon the earth” gave way during the time of the book of Acts for the revelation of the mystery.

The Body of Christ Church

The church which is Christ’s Body has a heavenly calling and a heavenly inheritance. You only learn that from Paul’s epistles because he is the only one who received the revelations and the only one who writes about and unto the body of Christ.” (above in quotes copied from http://www.av-1611.com/Prophecy_vs_Mystery.htm)

The Church and Israel

The Church is composed of all believers who have put their trust for salvation in the death and resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15.1-4). Unlike Israel, the Church is not under a covenantal relationship with God. Prior to the calling of Abraham, God made a covenant with mankind through Noah in which he promised never again to destroy the world with a flood cf. Genesis 9.9-17. After God created the Hebrew race he made covenants with them (see the Covenants of Israel). But God never made a covenant with the Church. God’s relationship to the Church is grace alone and is not under the Law of Moses. The Church does, however, share in the blessings of the New Covenant as the blessing of this covenant are spiritual rather than physical (as are the blessings of the other covenants).
The Church is separate and distinct from Israel. The below chart outlines the key differences.

Chart of Key Differences Between Israel and the Church

Israel Church
Established by and under covenants Established by grace alone (a “secret”)
Has earthly promises Has heavenly promises
Operates under Law Operates under Grace
Is a Kingdom Is a Body
Has a King Has a Head

Israel

Israel was established by a covenant God made with Abraham who became the father of the Jewish race. Subsequent covenants followed. The final covenant was the New Covenant. The Church’s life is Christ as his Body. The Church was a creation held secret in the mind of God until God revealed the secret to Paul (Ephesians 2.11-223.3-9Colossians 1.26-27). Both Israel and the Church are beneficiaries in God’s plan under the “eternal covenant” (Hebrews 13.20-21). This covenant was not made with either Israel or the Church.  The Eternal Covenant was sovereignly made by God the Father and God the Son in eternity past as the means of redeeming fallen mankind, solving the problem of evil, and bringing glory to God.  The Church’s domain and destiny is heaven (Philippians 3.20). Israel’s promised realm is earth (Matthew 6.9-10). God promised Israel an earthly kingdom (Acts 1.6).

The Church (Body of Christ)

The Church has no earthly kingdom. The operative means of life for the Church is grace (Romans 6.12). Throughout most of its history the nation of Israel operated under the Law of Moses and Jesus operated under the Law (Matthew 8.4) during his earthly ministry. In a future day, under the New Covenant, Israel will have the Law written on their hearts (Jeremiah 31.33). The Church is described as the Body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12.12-1327). Israel is described as a kingdom.  Jesus is the Head of the Church, i.e., the Body of Christ, (Ephesians 1.22). He is never called the King of the Church. Jesus is the King of Israel (Luke 1.31-33). Ironically, the Roman governor Pilate, a Gentile, recognized Jesus’ Jewish kingship (Matthew 27.37Mark 15.26;Luke 23.38John 19.17-22 cf. John 18.33-39) even though the Jews rejected His title (Matthew 27.29-31Mark 15.17-20Luke 23.35). In the Messianic kingdom, Jesus will rule as Israel’s King in his role as David’s greater Son. In this role he will fulfill the Abrahamic, Palestinian, Davidic, Sabbatic, and New covenants.

Conclusion

God established the Church, the Body of Christ, with the conversion and commission of Paul as the apostle to the Gentiles. It has the following characteristics.

(excerpted from http://doctrine.org/the-church-the-body-of-christ/

Appendix [ii]


The Revelation and the Rapture Differences

The Revelation- also called the Second Coming – is for Israel. Keep this in mind and prophecy becomes clearer. It originated through the prophets, centers around earth, concerns the establishment of the Davidic Covenant Kingdom in Jerusalem, and occurs at the completion of the great tribulation (Matt. 24:29) also known as the time of Jacob’s trouble (Jer. 30:7), and the day of the Lord (Isaiah 2:12; 13:6,9; 34:8; Jeremiah 46:10, etc).

The Rapture is for the church. It originated with Paul, centers around heaven, and is a mystery (1 Cor. 15:51) that removes the church (also a mystery) prior to the day of the Lord, at the day of Christ. Once the church is removed, the prophecy clock and final preparations for the Kingdom can once again get underway.

In order to fit the pieces together leading to the Kingdom, we need to understand Daniel’s seventy weeks. Remember, the vision was delivered by the angel Gabriel (Dan. 9:21), to the prophet Daniel, for “thy people” (Jews) concerning “thy holy city” (Jerusalem; see Dan. 9:24). Although it is a comprehensive narrative, the prophecy is incomplete; it’s missing a single week of seven years that must be fulfilled through Israel according to the Davidic Covenant and the prophetic Word (Dan. 9:24-27).

The Jewish prophet Daniel saw the Lord’s first presentation of the Kingdom in a prophecy he foretold of seventy weeks of seven years (for Israel) leading to the cutting off of the Messiah (Dan. 9:24-26). With the Davidic Covenant in mind, John the Baptist and the Lord Jesus Christ began preaching “Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matt. 3:2; 4:17). This of course was God’s offer to inaugurate the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7:16) and fulfill Daniel’s prophecy.

When Jesus was officially rejected on the exact day Daniel’s seventieth week was to begin, the prophetic calendar for Israel stopped; allowing for a parenthetic body to be inserted into the fabric of God’s providence- a mystery that was unknown by the prophets- called the church. However, this left unfulfilled one seven year period the prophets and dispensational scholars refer to as the time of Jacob’s (Israel) trouble (Jer. 30:7); the day of the Lord (Isa. 2:12; 13:6, 9; 34:8; Joel 1:15, 2:1; etc); a time of trouble (Dan. 12:1); and the tribulation (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 24:21-29).

Bear in mind, the day of the Lord is a Jewish phrase used by at least nine Jewish prophets that centers on earth and concerns Israel not the church (see Zech 12-14; Matthew 24; Rev. 12: the focus is Jerusalem and the abomination of desolation in the Temple Dan. 9:27; Matt. 24:15; 2 Thess. 2:4). The Body of Christ is NOT in view during the time of Jacob’s trouble!

See Chart of Differences between the Revelation and the Rapture on the next page

RAPTURE

 

Unrevealed and not predicted in O.T. Scriptures (1 Cor. 15:51 – “mystery” compare Eph. 3:9 – “which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God”)
Christ comes in the air (1 Thess. 4:16-17)
Christ comes for His saints (1 Thess. 4:16-17; 1 Cor. 15:51-56) and returns to Heaven (John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 4:14).
Christ claims His bride (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27)
Only His own people see Him (1 Thess. 4:17-18; Phil. 3:20; Titus 2:13)
A wedding ceremony will occur following this coming (Rev. 19:7; 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27)
Christ coming as the bright and morning star (Rev. 22:16)
Translation of living believers to Heaven (1 Cor. 15:51-52; John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 4:13-18)
A time of blessing and comfort (1 Thess. 4:18; 5:11)
Earth not judged (John 14:3; 1 Cor. 15:51-53; 2 Thess. 2:1 – no mention of judgment)
Imminent (any moment), signless – (Phil. 3:20; 4:5; Titus 2:13; 1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 3:11; 22:12. 20)
Believers only are involved with this coming (John 14:1-3; 1 Cor.15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:13-18)
Occurs before God’s wrath  (1 Thess. 1:10; 5:4, 9; Rev. 3:10 – “keep thee from the hour”)
Marks the commencement of God’s day of wrath on earth (1 Thess. 5:1-9).
Tribulation begins following this coming (1 Thess. 1:10; 2 Thess. 2:1-3; Rev. 3:10; Rev. 6-19)

No mention of Satan (1 Thess. 4:13-18)

REVELATION

 

Revealed and predicted often in O.T. Scriptures (Isa. 9:7; 11:4; 26:19-21; 63:1-4; Dan. 2:44-45; 7:9-12; Zech. 14:1-9; Ma. 4:2-3)

Christ comes back to earth (Zech. 14:4)
Christ comes with His saints (Zech. 14:5; 1 Thess. 3:13; Jude 14) and returns to earth (Rev. 19:11-14).

Christ comes with His bride (Rev. 19:7-9; 11-14)
Every eye shall see Him – visible to entire world (Matt. 24:27; Rev. 1:7)
A wedding feast will occur following this coming (Rev. 19:9; Matt. 22:1-14; Lk. 14:12-24; Isa 25:6)

Christ comes as the sun of righteousness (Malachi 4:2)
Transfer of unbelievers to judgment (Matt. 24:37-41; 25:31-46; 13:41-42; 3:11-12)
A time of earthly destruction and judgment (2 Thess. 2:8-12; Matt. 24:51; 25:46)
Earth judged (Rev. 16:14-20; 19:15; Isa. 11:4)

Follows definite predicted signs (signs occurring during the Tribulation Period – Matt. 24:29-34)
All humanity is affected by this coming (Matt. 24:1-25:46 – Israel and Gentile nations)
Occurs “after the tribulation of those days” (Matt. 24:29-30) – 7 years later
Marks the culmination of God’s day of wrath on earth (Joel 2:31; Rev. 19:15)
Millennium begins following this coming (Rev. 20:1-3; Matt. 13:41-43; Daniel 7:13-14; 12:2-3)

Satan is bound (Rev. 20:1-3)

Contents for the Tribulation Trilogy

Dr. Mike Johnston

1 THE PREMISE OF  THE TRIBULATION TRILOGY. 6

2 THE SETTING FOR THE TRIBULATION.. 10

3 THE SUBJECT IN THE TRIBULATION.. 30

4 THE SUBSTANCE OF THE TRIBULATION.. 44

5 DANIEL CODIFIED THE TRIBULATION.. 54

6 THE OLIVET DISCOURSE CLARIFIED THE TRIBULATION.. 70

7 REVELATION CONCLUDES THE TRIBULATION.. 87

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 119

INDEX.. 120

APPENDICES. 121

For those who would like to obtain a hard copy of THE TRIBULATION TRILOGY: http://pmiministries.com/Tribulation_Trilogy_excerpts.htm

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